A. Klimczuk, Zastosowanie koncepcji kapitału społecznego w badaniach ludologicznych. Przykład branży gier komputerowych (Application of the social capital concept in ludology research. An example of the games industry), PTBG and UAM, Poznań, „Homo Ludens” 2010, nr 1(2), p. 51-59.
More and more people around the world are using computer (video) games. The development of the gaming industry means increasing of its complexity in all aspects. Not only is the content represented in games continuously differentiating, but we also see the increasing diversity among their creators, users, researchers and the public. This article aims to draw attention to the possibility of using the concept of social capital in ludologists’ research as well as in improving the quality of games and of the cooperation between social environments related with games. Social capital is understood here as a potential of interactions embedded in interpersonal ties and social norms, which can bring advantages for individuals, groups and societies. The author takes a closer look on: the main features of this multi-dimensional category; significant differences between human, social and cultural capital; as well as the positive and negative influences of social capital.
Z gier komputerowych (wideo) korzysta coraz więcej ludzi na całym świecie. Rozwój branży gier oznacza wzrastającą jej złożoność we wszystkich płaszczyznach. Nie tylko stale różnicują się treści przedstawiane w grach, ale też rośnie zróżnicowanie ich twórców, użytkowników, badaczy i opinii publicznej. Celem artykułu jest zwrócenie uwagi na możliwość wykorzystania koncepcji kapitału społecznego w badaniach ludologów oraz w podnoszeniu jakości gier i współpracy między środowiskami związanymi z grami. Kapitał społeczny jest tu rozumiany jako potencjał współdziałania osadzony w powiązaniach międzyludzkich i normach społecznych, który może przynosić korzyści osobom, grupom i społeczeństwom. Przybliżone zostały: główne cechy tej wielowymiarowej kategorii; istotne różnice między kapitałem ludzkim, społecznym i kulturowym; oraz pozytywne i negatywne skutki oddziaływania kapitału społecznego.
What is youth policy, and what major elements should a national youth policy strategy include? How can young people be consulted and otherwise involved in developing youth policy? How do institutions such as the European Union, the Council of Europe and the United Nations address youth policy, and how can this work be concretely linked to the efforts of a national government to develop a youth policy agenda?
These are some of the essential questions addressed in this publication. The Youth Policy Manual should be considered a resource, a tool and a helpful guide both for policy makers in the youth field and for non-governmental organisations and other stakeholder groups who advocate for improved youth policy at the national level.
This manual proposes one possible model for how a national youth policy strategy can be developed. It is based on the author's observations from the countries of South-eastern and eastern Europe, as they gain experience in addressing youth policy in a transversal and cross-sectorial manner and with the active involvement of young people.
Youth policy in Moldova, is the latest in the Council of Europe series of youth policy reviews. As Moldova is the 16th country to be reviewed since 1997, this report has been enriched by the experience gained from the previous reviews of countries in western and eastern Europe and one in the Commonwealth of Independent States (Armenia). These reviews have nurtured the development of an informed way of thinking about youth policy and strategies for implementation.
The report is based on a cross-sectoral understanding of youth policy, it focuses on youth policy structures, education (formal and especially non-formal), transition to the labour market and entrepreneurship. There are overviews of policy related to social security (health and social protection, childcare), juvenile justice and sport. Particular attention has been paid to questions such as migration, urban—rural divisions and the Transnistria issue. There is also a chapter dedicated to cross-cutting issues, including youth information, youth participation and social exclusion.
Albania is the seventeenth country to have undergone an international review of its national youth policy, a series which was started by the Council of Europe in 1997. The review was performed in 2009 during two one-week visits by a team of international experts working on the basis of the Albanian National Youth Strategy, published in 2007.
The report focuses on three issues identified by the Albanian government: the law, delivery mechanisms and youth participation, and three issues identified as important by the review team itself: youth information, leisure-time activities and youth crime and justice. While reviewing the youth policy in Albania with special attention to theses issues, the international team came across a number of specific or cross-sectoral subjects (education, health, minorities, etc.) which helped depict a broad picture of the situation of young people in the country.
Recommendations made by the international team cover not only government action, but address steps to be taken by those who take part, at all levels, in the shaping of youth policy in Albania.