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The map shows the nationwide consumption of Endosulfan. As we can clearly see, the largest states, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh consuming over 1000 kilo litres of the pesticide followed by other states consuming a large amount. While Kerala has been using neglible amounts of Endosulfan. India is the the second largest exporter for fruits and vegetables 198 million tons
The green states are majorly the fruit and vegetable producing states and depend on cross pollinated crops.
Endosulfan is widely used on cross pollinated crops and it is soft on polliantor honey bees and natural predators
The states marked in green have been using Endosulfan in the range of 1000 KL to 1200 for over 30 years
There have been no reports of any effects on human or environment in these regions.
The states marked in black are Kerala and Sikkim.
Use of Endosulfan in Kerala is suspended and Sikkim has no significant use of pesticides due to its climate conditions.
The vigour of the NGOs' campaign against endosulfan concides with the decline in European interest in the pesticide . Farmers in India at large have found endosulfan to be a pesticide that does not harm any of the pollinator forms of life. The Kerala government has not been able to link causally the incidence of diseases to the use of endosulfan but is politically committed to banning the pesticide . Hence the Proxy battle over endosulfan… http://whybanendosulfan.org
"The pesticide problem in Kerala is for real; there are some unanswered questions, drowned in the shrillness of the anti- and pro-endosulfan debate and the contradicting findings of the dozen-odd committees set up over the years to study the issue. Like, has there been a study that aims to get to the bottom of the problem, without taking sides? Who is an ‘endosulfan victim’ in Kasargod? Has there been any study so far that conclusively links the pesticide to the congenital problems in this area?
Is there more to Kerala’s endosulfan story that needs to be probed?
Find out: http://bit.ly/keralatragedy"
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USEPA- Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Endosulfan states that Endosulfan, a broad spectrum contact insecticide and acaricide is neither mutagenic nor carcinogenic thus proving it safe for use. This largely clarifies the prevalent misinformation about endosulfan which states that it is harmful to human health.
Although the report mentions that exposure to endosulfan has resulted in both reproductive and development effects in nontarget animals, particularly birds, fish and mammals, a scientific study done in India showacases no residues of Endosulfan in fishes and the river water samples hence proving it.
Application of endosulfan is subjected to various factors that affect agriculture.The presentation gives a detailed understanding of major issues related to endosulfan, from the percentage of usage to the Stockholm convention fallout, every aspect which proves endosulfan a safe pesticide to use.
The WHO while setting guidelines for drinking water quality conducted a study for Endosulfan concentrations in public drinking water. Studies reveal that endosulfan usually occurs at concentrations in drinking-water well below those at which toxic effects can be expected to occur, and it is therefore not considered necessary to derive a guideline value for endosulfan in drinking water.
On the basis of the report of scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain, it is concluded that in contrast to most related organochlorine pesticides , endosulfan has a less pronounced affinity to lipids. Consequently, bio-magnification and bio-accumulation of endosulfan, in terrestrial food chains, is less likely to occur. Moreover, Endosulfan is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed to the kidneys and liver and to a lesser extent to other tissues causing no harm to the body.
There is experimental evidence of adverse effects of endosulfan on the male reproductive system, but there are no human data. Therefore a study to examine the relationship between environmental endosulfan exposure and reproductive development in male children and adolescents was undertaken. The study population was composed of 117 male schoolchildren (10–19 years of age) of a village situated at the foothills of cashew plantations, where endosulfan had been aerially sprayed for more than 20 years. The study reveals that endosulfan has no adverse effects on the male reproductive system.