Type of paper: Essay

Topic: DNA, Mrna, Protein, Codon, Genetics, Anticodon, Strand, Molecule

Pages: 1

Words: 275

Published: 2020/12/02

Take – Home Essay Question

(20 points)
This essay question is due via the Safe Assignment Option on Blackboard. This essay (not definitions) should be written in YOUR own words. Please cite any sources that you used (this is worth two points and should be posted on the original document).

Protein Synthesis

Beginning with transcription and ending with translation, outline the full sequence of events that occurs during the synthesis of a protein. Include the following terms: amino acid, mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes, RNA polymerase, exons, codon, anticodon, peptide bond, start codon, stop codon, dehydration synthesis, protein functions (list some), A = T, C = G, A = U, transcription (general definition), translation (general definition), single-gene genetic disorder, mutation.
Protein Synthesis begins with transcription. The initial step in transcription being in the partial unwinding of the DNA molecule in order for that portion of the DNA that codes for the needed protein cab be transcribed. If the DNA molecule is unwound and it is in the proper location, RNA polymerase (an enzyme) will now help line up nucleotides in order to create a complementary strand for the mRNA. Due to nature of the mRNA of being a single-stranded molecule, only one of two strands from the DNA is used as template for the new RNA strand. The new strand of RNA follows the fundamental rules of base pairing.
After the process of transcription, a new RNA strand is released while two unzipped DNA strands bind together again in order to form the double helix. After transcription, however, the DNA template remains unchanged making it possible to transcribe another similar molecule of RNA immediately after the completion of the first one A single gene on a DNA strand can actually produce enough RNA to make thousands of copies of the same protein even in a short time frame.
During the translation phase, the mRNA is now sent to the cytoplasm, where it now bonds with ribosomes, which is the site for protein synthesis. Ribosomes contains three important binding venues one for mRNA and two for tRNA. The two sites for tRNA are labeles as the A and P site. If the mRNA is now in place, tRNA molecules, wherein each associated with their specific amino acides now bind to the ribosome sequence in line with the mRNA code. At its head, tRNA has three nucleotides which make up an anticodon while at its tail end is an acceptor stem that attached to specific amino acids. The function of the anticodon is to pair with a specific nitrogenous base with mRNA. If the mRNA as a codon AUC, for example, with is expected that it will pair up with tRNA’s anticodon system.
The translation begins with the binding of the mRNA chain to the ribosome. The first codon, which is called the start codon methionine, is set to fill up the P site and the second codon fills up the A site. The tRNA molecule which has the complementary anticodon to the mRNA forms a temporary base pair with the mRNA located as the A site. The peptide bond is now formed between the animo acid attached to that of the tRNA in the A site and the methionine which is in the P site. The ribosome continues to slide until the tRNA that was initially found in the P site lets go into the cytoplasm where it will bind with another amino acid. The process continues until one of the stop codon enters the A site and at some point the protein chain connected to the tRNA located at the P site is release. Thus the process is released. A wrong process and binding will however result to mutation, and other genetic disorder such as the single-gene genetic disorder.

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WePapers. (2020, December, 02) Human Physiology Essay. Retrieved April 18, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/human-physiology-essay/
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WePapers. 2020. "Human Physiology Essay." Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. Retrieved April 18, 2021. (https://www.wepapers.com/samples/human-physiology-essay/).
"Human Physiology Essay," Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com, 02-Dec-2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/human-physiology-essay/. [Accessed: 18-Apr-2021].
Human Physiology Essay. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/human-physiology-essay/. Published Dec 02, 2020. Accessed April 18, 2021.
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