Applied Research Methods Research Paper Example
Guerette, R. T. (2007). Immigration Policy, Border Security and Migrant Deaths: An Impact Evaluation of Life Saving Efforts under the Border Safety Initiative. Criminology & Public Policy, 6(2), pp. 201-222.
As a response to the increasing number of illegal immigrant death in the US, the government developed and implemented the Border Safety Initiative (BSI) to improve safety and security in the southwest border. The main cause of illegal immigrant death relate to poor safety and security in the way that they attempt to enter US borders illegally following the U.S. Border Patrol (USBP). The USBP made it difficult for illegal immigrants to cross the border. As a result, illegal immigrants were forced to follow different routes into the country. The main objective of the research study was to evaluate the impact of BSI initiatives, particularly in lowering the number of illegal immigrant deaths at the southwest border.
Guerette conducted research to assess the impact of existing BSI policies and practices on the rate of migrant deaths. Hence, the research study may be considered as a policy assessment towards the goal of addressing a problem – the increasing migrant death in the southwest border following the implementation of stricter illegal immigration laws in the US. Guerette designed the research to apply the quantitative research design. Hence, Guerette collated numerical data from different sources to track the number of migrant deaths since the implementation of BSI policies.
Since Guerette obtained data from different sources, the researcher sought to compare and contrast data to determine if the rate of migrant deaths increased, decreased, or stayed the same following the implementation of BSI policies.
Type of Data Used to Conduct Analysis
Guerette used different types of data in the research study that fall under dependent variables and independent variables. To evaluate the impact of BSI policies and practices on the rate of migrant deaths, Guerette collected data from state and national registration systems. Eschbach et al. (2001) put together data from both registries. Guerette also used data from the BSI Incident Tracking System. Both groups of data show the frequency or rate of migrant deaths in the US. Data from the Incident Tracking System was used as the baseline data to compare changes in the frequency of migrant deaths since the implementation of illegal immigration policies. The data collated by Guerette spanned from 1984 until 2003.
Independent variables in the research study include the volume of illegal immigration over time. Guerette used data from the US Border Patrol to determine this value. The US Border Patrol kept a log of migrant apprehensions at the border.
Guerette’s sampling procedure in the research was defined by the available data from the Incident Tracking System and Border Patrol logs. Guerette used both groups of data because the first one collated by the BSI Incident Tracking System reflected or showed the rate of migrant deaths in the US. Guerette was able to obtain samples between 1984 and 2003 because they were the ones available from the database. Similarly, Guerette obtained samples from the US Border Patrol logs. Guerette was only able to obtain samples that were made available by Border Patrol.
The dependent variable in the research study is the rate of migrant deaths in the southwest border. ‘Migrant death’ rate is the dependent variable because it is highly dependent on the scope and efficiency of policies or regulations implemented by the US government to realize its policies on illegal immigration. Efficient policies, for instance, would reduce the rate of migrant deaths. On the other hand, inefficient policies would fail to reduce or lead to an increase in migrant deaths. Overall, the reduction of migrant deaths in the US depends on the policies and strategies that the government would implement to address the problem.
The main findings of the research point to the inefficiency of BSI-related initiatives in lowering the number of illegal immigrant deaths. Outcomes of Guerette’s research show that prior to the implementation of BSI in 1998, the rate of migrant deaths were decreasing. Nonetheless, after the implementation of BSI, the number of migrant deaths increased gradually over the years. Based on the sample collated that recorded data from 1984 to 2003, 2003 had the highest migrant death rate.
The set of data obtained by Guerette from BORSTAR BSI, however, show that the Lateral Repatriation Program (LRP) is an effective means of reducing migrant deaths in the border. In addition, when BORSTAR agents instead of line agents were involved in rescue operations, migrants had higher chances of surviving. Both of these outcomes are relevant in determining future policy development strategies such that leaders in charge of immigration may prioritize the expansion of LRP strategies and add more BORSTAR agents to its existing pool of agents instead of BSI implementation to reduce the rate of migrant deaths at the border.
Outcomes of the research study show that the rate of migrant deaths resulting from illegal immigration is a serious problem that must be addressed. At present time, the US government’s policy on the matter is to increase border security. Nonetheless, as the government implements stricter laws, the rate of illegal immigration increases. For this reason, outcomes of research prove the need to balance policy such that laws and regulations discourage illegal immigration but also protect the wellbeing of migrants. The research study suggests that the development and implementation of ‘proactive life-saving measures’ that are intended to reduce harm would significantly reduce the number of migrant deaths.
Three Limitations of the Study
First, the limitation of the study lays in the scope of dependent variable data obtained by Guerette. Guerette was only able to use two groups of data. Data collated by Guerette only spanned from 1984 until 2003. Hence, the tracking and comparison of migrant deaths over the years only reflected the rate or frequency within these years. This does not include data after 2003, which may yield different results or outcomes for the research product. Moreover, this limits an accurate reflection of migrant deaths in recent years. For this reason, there is a need to replicate this research and include data after 2003 to illustrate recent data and determine if no changes occurred over time.
Second, the limitation of the study lays in Guerette’s difficulty of identifying strategies and practices adopted by Border Patrol to save migrants at the border. Life-saving groups are more transparent in this regard compared to Border Patrol groups.
Third, the study and interpretation of BORSTAR agents’ contribution to life-saving efforts at the border is limited to data assessment of performance conducted for the agents at the Tucson sector. Hence, it would be difficult to generalize that all BORSTAR agents along the border are highly effective in saving migrants since only those agents within the Tucson sector were assessed. Future studies may expand research by assessing the performance of other BORSTAR agents in various sectors throughout the border.
Kovandzic, T., Sloan, J. & Vieraitis, L. (2004). ‘Striking Out’ as Crime Reduction Policy: The Impact of ‘Three Strikes’ Laws on Crime Rates in U.S. Cities. Justice Quarterly, 21(2), pp. 207-239.
The research study is an assessment of the impact of the three strikes laws ratified by US Congress and implemented in 25 states. The three strikes laws were the US Congress’ response to ineffective crime reduction policies that were previously implemented by the government. The main objective of the three strikes law was deterrence to address recidivism rate in the country. If a crime offender, for instance, commits crime three times, then the ‘offender is out’, which means that the state would implement heavier punishment for repeat offenders. US Congress intended for the three strikes law to discourage criminal offenders or those with prior convictions to commit crime. In the study, Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis (2004) assessed the three strikes law within the context of determining changes in crime rate patterns.
The main objective of the research study is to assess the efficiency and outcomes of the three strikes law particularly in terms of reducing crime rate in cities where these laws were implemented by the local government. In the research study, Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis (2004) estimated the impact of the three strike laws in different states as well as overall.
Type of Data Used to Conduct Analysis
Aside from collating data from existing literature, Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis (2004) collated data from the UCR index crimes. Data obtained from the index were collated from 1980 until 2000 in 188 different cities in the US. All of the cities have a population of more than 100,000.
Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis (2004) obtained available samples from the UCR index crimes. Hence, Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis’ (2004) sampling procedures were based on the availability of data. Since the crime index was the only source of data at that time that illustrate crime rates in different cities across the US after the implementation of the three strikes law, Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis (2004) used the data in the analysis.
Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis’ (2004) sampling procedure was also based on the intended type of data for analysis. The researchers sought to determine not only the overall impact of the three strikes law but also the effect or impact of this policy in large cities across the US. For this reason, Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis (2004) selected samples that indicated the crime rate in each city targeted for assessment. Sampling was limited to large cities with more than 100,000 total in population. Furthermore, Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis (2004) selected the city as a unit of analysis because UCR crime data for cities in the US were thoroughly organized and represented the national sample of crime rates in the whole country.
In the research study, the dependent variable is the rate of crime. The US government creates and implements policies to address issues pertaining to crime. After the implementation and legislation of laws and policies, however, it is highly important that initiatives focus on assessing or evaluating their outcomes. To assess the efficiency of laws and policies, it is important to determine if these accomplish the goals or intended outcomes. Hence, criminal justice policies would affect crime rates and patterns. For this reason, the latter is dependent on the nature of criminal justice policies. In the research study, the dependent variable is the crime rate in different cities across the US following the implementation of the three strikes laws.
The key findings in the research prove that the three strikes law is not an effective policy crime deterrence and reducing recidivism rates. One the main findings in the research is that the three strikes law contributes to an increase in homicide rates in cities. This outcome shows that the three strikes law is detrimental to crime rate because even after its implementation, the homicide rates still continued to increase over the years.
The second key finding in the research study is that cities where the local government implements the three strikes laws did not record a reduction or decrease in crime rates. For this reason, this outcome supports the claim that the three strikes laws are ineffective in preventing repeat offenders or recidivism.
The third key finding in the research is that prior to the implementation of the three strikes laws, the crime rate in different cities in the US illustrated a decline sometime in the early 1980s and throughout the 1990s. Changes in crime rate, particularly the decline of this at certain periods of time show that policy is not the main factor that affects crime rate. Other factors that existed prior to the implementation of the tree strikes law led to the decline in crime rate.
Three Limitations of the Study
First, one of the limitations of the research study is that the city data used in the study is not consistent. In some years, for instance, data across various cities share similarities, which are not fully explained. For this reason, there is a standard error in the data obtained from the UCR index crimes, which could have affected the outcomes of research. To address this limitation, future research studies should look into other sources of data in order to validate the UCR index crimes and have a point of reference for comparison to determine validity of data.
Second, the outcomes of research are limited to crime rate in cities studied in the research. As formerly noted, Kovandzic, Sloan, and Vieraitis (2004) selected key cities around the US. This means that the researchers only studied a fraction of states. This means that there is a possibility that the outcomes of the three strikes laws may be different in other states, which warrants another research study to expand the results and our understanding of the impact of the three strikes laws across the US.
Third, the outcomes of research are only limited to the interpretation of data, specifically crime rate over the years after the implementation of the three strikes laws. The research study does not take into consideration other factors in states or cities that may have influenced or affected crime rate. Determining these factors are important in understanding what other aspects may contribute to the rate of crime and recidivism.
D’Alessio, S., Stolzenberg, L. & Terry, W. C. III. (1999). ‘Eyes on the Street’: The Impact of Tennessee’s Emergency Cellular Telephone Program on Alcohol-Related Fatal Crashes. Crime and Delinquency, 45(4), pp. 453-466.
In the research study, D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) sought to evaluate the efficiency of an emergency cellular telephone programmed designed in 1995 in reducing car accidents that resulted from alcohol intake. D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) also aimed to determine the value of such technology in reducing car accidents, and consequently, improving highway safety. The research was conducted in light of the increasing number of fatal car accidents that are related to alcohol.
The technology was first implemented in the state of Tennessee. The technology called the Emergency Cellular Telephone Program, developed in 1995, allowed individuals with cellular phones to call police officers to report drunk drivers or road emergencies. To make calling easier, users only needed to dial “*384” or StarTHP. Proponents of the program intended for the technology to reduce the number of injuries and deaths from alcohol-related car crashes. The agents answering the calls are responsible for calling the nearby emergency facility and police precincts to respond to the accident or to apprehend drunk drivers. The response to the technology was overwhelming with 6,557 calls during the first 12 months. The extent of the service and the people’s response to the technology make it an interesting point of research to determine its viability in reducing car crash related injuries and deaths not only in Tennessee but throughout the US.
D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) aimed to determine the impact of an emergency cellular telephone program on the rate of alcohol-related fata car accidents. To accomplish this objective, D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) conducted an empirical study by obtaining existing data on the number of fatal crashes that took place in public roads in the US. After collating this data, D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) assessed the impact of the emergency cellular telephone program by using the multiple time-series design to analyze and interpret data. The researchers compared the number of fatal car crashes prior to and after the implementation and use of the emergency cellular telephone program to determine if its implementation altered the rate of fatal accidents.
Furthermore, the research design also involved a comparison of data gathered over a period of time in order to determine the genuine effects of the technology. According to D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999), the research study “involves comparisons between a series of observations conducted over time and expected to be affected by an intervention and a control series not expected to be influenced by the same intervention” (p. 456).
Type of Data Used to Conduct Analysis
Data obtained to conduct analysis was gleaned from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). FARS gathers information about the frequency and number of fatal crashes that take place in public roads in the US. The FARS data related the number of alcohol-related fatal crash rate and the number or rate of nonalcohol-related fatal crash rates.
D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry’s (1999) sampling procedure largely depended on the available data collected from FARS. FARS collects data about the frequency and number of fatal crashes in all public roads in the US. Hence, D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) gathered data from FARS’ existing samples. Furthermore, D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) selected samples from monthly data. The researchers also isolated data based on two categories: the rate of alcohol-related and nonalcohol-related fatal car crashes that occurred in public roads in the US.
There are two dependent variables in the study. The first dependent variable in the research study is the number of injuries and deaths prevented after the implementation or use of the emergency cellular telephone program. The program being assessed is the calling mechanisms, which means that the rate of car crash related injuries and deaths would be influenced by the program’s implementation. The first dependent variable is the rate of alcohol-related fatal crashes. D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) obtained data based on the monthly percentage of fatal crashes that took place in public highways in the US. The second dependent variable is the number of nonalcohol-related fatal crashes in the US. Using both groups of data, D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) compared and contrasted the rate of fatal car crashes after the implementation of the emergency cellphone telephone program.
The key findings in the research study underscore the important role of the emergency cellular telephone program in reducing the number of alcohol-related fatal crashes in the US. D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) plotted the data obtained from both groups and discovered that the program has significantly reduced the number of alcohol related car accidents, particularly between the hours of 8 in the evening to 8 in the morning.
Nonetheless, D’Alessio, Stolzenberg, and Terry (1999) asserted that further research studies are needed to verify the outcomes of the research. One of the challenges met by the researchers is that the outcomes are merely suggestive. Further evaluation is necessary to verify the data and the outcomes of the research.
Three Limitations of the Study
First, the research study is only limited to the data collated in Tennessee, which means that the results could vary if the program is implemented in other states. For this reason, it is highly important that the research study be duplicated to-retest the data or to update information by using recent data collated in the past years.
Second, the research study is only limited to the data collated of alcohol-related fatal crashes and non-alcohol related fatal crashes between the hours of 8 in the evening to 8 in the morning. The research did not include data collated within roads that are not serviced by the emergency cellular telephone program.
Third, the research study is limited to comparison of both groups of data. Future research studies should look into the data over time to determine the continued effect or impact of the emergency program. Moreover, its limitations are based on the shortcomings of this technology. With the advent of technological development it is important that future research studies consider new technologies or mechanisms that could improve the system of the emergency cellular telephone program.