Centrifugal Pumps Reports Example
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The function of pumps is to transport fluids in places where they are supposed to pass in order to reach their intended destination. What this implies is that they are important in life today. A centrifugal pump is a type of pump that is most commonly used globally. The principle in which it operates in is simple, well defined and tested thoroughly. The pump is robust, inexpensive as well as effective to produce. There is a huge range of variation that is based on the centrifugal pump, and they are composed of similar hydraulic parts.
The main aim of this experiment is to establish the general efficiency of a centrifugal pump as well as testing the features at speeds that are constant in order to determine centrifugal outcomes.
Pump is a pressure driven machine which changes over mechanical pressure to water powered pressure; the water powered pressure which is delivered is as weight. Accordingly, the pump which is utilized is an outward pump that changes over mechanical pressure into weight. A Centrifugal Pump comprises of an impeller which is pivoting inside a winding/ volute packaging. Fluid is embedded to the impeller in a pivotal bearing, which is the z-hub course; it is flown through the focal opening from the base, as demonstrated in "figure 1"; and is bolstered through the impeller to the Eye of the pump. It is then flown radially outward and is released around the whole outline into a packaging. As the fluid courses through the turning impeller, pressure is granted to the liquid, this outcomes in increment of both The Pressure Energy and Kinetic Energy
The name of pump Centrifugal is gotten from the way that, the release of fluid from the pivoting impeller is because of the radial head made in it when a fluid mass is turned into a vessel. This outcomes in a weight ascend all through the mass, the ascent anytime being corresponding to the square of the precise Velocity & the separation of the point from the hub of turn.
Cavitation is the issues in the pump. It is characterized as the marvel of arrangement of vapor rises of a streaming fluid in an area where the weight of the fluid falls beneath its vapor weight. Cavitation is generally partitioned into two sections of conduct: inertial/transient cavitation as well as non-inertial cavitation. To begin with, inertial cavitation can be defined as the procedure where air pocket in a fluid quickly crumples, creating a stun wave. Those cavitation frequently happens in propellers, pumps, vascular tissues of plants and in impellers. On the other hand, non-inertial cavitation can be defined as the process in which a rise in a liquid is compelled to waver fit as a fiddle because of some type of energy input, for instance, an acoustic field.
A single phase motor runs the pump
There is an energy input into the pump
There is a level indicator in the collecting tank to show the liquid level
It is fitted with pressure gauges on the delivery side as well as a vacuum to the section side.
Definition of terms
Static head (h); this is the difference between the level of the liquid in the lump and high level reservoir. It can be classified into two parts which includes:
Suction Head (hs), liquid height from the sump to the liquid impeller
Delivery head (hd), which is the liquid height of the high reservoir level from the pump’s center
H = Hs + Hd (i)
Total Head; this is the total discharge head less the total suction head. The final term obtained should have losses of energy as well as pipe bends
The formula for calculating this is
H = h + hs + hfd + hfs
H = h + hf + Vd2 / 2g Where,
Vd = Velocity in delivery pipe.
hf = Total head loss in the pipe system.
Pump Efficiency, =(Power Output / Power input) * 100
= (Po/Pi) * 100
Power Output, Po = PgQactH , w
P (water density) = 1000 kg/m3
g (Acceleration due to gravity) = 9.81 m/s2
Qact (Actual Discharge) Ah/t m3/s
A = area of collecting tank ,m2
h = rise of waterlevel in collecting tank = 0.1 ,m
t = time taken for 10cm rise in collecting tank sec
In order to obtain an optimum performance where the pump operates at an optimum efficiency, the pump is supposed to run at its required speed. This speed can be taken to be the driving speed of the motor, the head as well as the discharge from the features. One can find out whether or not the pump will be able to handle a given amount of liquid. It is possible to establish the motor size of the pump by using the switch and energy meter. The pump will then be switched on and an observation be made in order to observe whether the pump rotates in the intended direction or not. There should be sufficient water in the tank before the beginning of the experiment. If there is a need for priming, it should be done
The pump specifications were as follows:
Pump type -: Centrifugal Pump Type
Motor Power -: 01 HP
Dimmer Stat -: 04 Amp., Open Type
Energy Meter -: Electrical
Vacuum Gauge -: 0 to 760 mm of Hg (0 to -30 PSi)
Pressure Gauge -: 0 to 2.1 kg / cm2
Procedure of the experiment
The first procedure will be to turn on the motor and check the rotation of the pump to make sure it is rotating in the right direction which is in counterclockwise direction in order to achieve a flow of water
A confirmation should be made on whether the discharge tank valve is not obstructed and that water is passing through well
The speed of the pump should then be controlled by a hand held Tachometer
Several trials should be done each time recording the readings of the discharge and suction
The discharge of the tank should then be measured. This is achieved by diverting the flow of the liquid. This measurement should be done by recording a set of 10 revolutions.
The measurements should them be recorded in a table such as the one listed below in order to obtain data that will later be used in calculations to obtain the required results of the centrifugal pump rig experiment.
The result that will be obtained in this experiment will then be used to establish the general efficiency of the pump. A graph is then going to be drawn plotting the head versus the efficiency, head pump vs. actual discharge and head pump Vs. Flow rate.
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