Example Of Teratogens-Psychology Essay

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Pregnancy, Fetus, Abortion, Drugs, Cocaine, Development, Books, Literature

Pages: 1

Words: 275

Published: 2020/10/27

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Teratogens are the compounds or elements which either chemically or physically affects the growth of an embryo. It was believed that the amniotic fluid tends to prevent any harm from chemical or physical means. Moreover, the lack of direct contact with placental exchange in the placenta can protect the fetus from getting exposed to any harmful effects. However, when the infants were born with the disorder, the effect of environmental factors were determined and evaluated (Pillitteri, 2009).
Teratogens include alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, viruses, bacteria, drugs, toxoplasma, chemicals, radiation, etc. nicotine is that teratogens which have an adverse effect on an individual and the fetus. Nicotine attacks on the developing tissues of neural parts by using the particular nicotinic receptors. Smoking or chewing tobacco can add the nicotine in the mother’s blood which can pass to the fetus development. Besides neural impairment, nicotine causes the reduction in blood flow. Consequently, the fetus faces starvation of the nutrients. Furthermore, lack of blood results in diminished oxygen for the fetus. Hence, this leads to growth retardation, poor weight at birth and premature delivery (Zagon & Slotkin, 2012). Another teratogen which affects the fetus adversely is cocaine. Cocaine also affects the development of brain and brainstem. Subsequently, the infant exposed to cocaine during pregnancy suffers from apnea, periodic breathing, bradycardia and auditory system defects (Konkol & Olsen, 1996).The fetus may be born with malformed limbs due to cocaine consumption by the mother. In addition, the cognitive defects are elicited by cocaine in the fetus which are identified after few months or years (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2015)


Pillitteri, A. (2010). Maternal & child health nursing: care of the childbearing & childrearing family. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=9781582559995 on 3rd February 2015.Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=9780849394652 on 3rd February 2015.
Zagon, I. S., & Slotkin, T. A. (Eds.). (2012). Maternal substance abuse and the developing nervous system. Elsevier. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/gp/search?index=books&linkCode=qs&keywords=9780080926674 on 3rd February 2015.

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"Example Of Teratogens-Psychology Essay," Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com, 27-Oct-2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/example-of-teratogens-psychology-essay/. [Accessed: 18-May-2022].
Example Of Teratogens-Psychology Essay. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/example-of-teratogens-psychology-essay/. Published Oct 27, 2020. Accessed May 18, 2022.

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