Free Public Administration Essay Sample
Question 1 –Page 1
Dr. Gordon’s interest in writing the book was aroused by stories of two different women with different academic qualification but were facing a similar predicament in terms of maternity issues. The first woman was considering not having a child as she felt that her colleagues who would be voting on her promotion would not fully support her and might not be happy with her decision to get pregnant. The second woman who was well educated and an assistant professor declined to take her maternity leave after the birth of her child since she felt that her colleagues would judge her harshly.
Most researchers start their projects upon identification of a need in the society. Their efforts, therefore, are towards finding solutions to this problem. Other writers and researchers try to gain insight on prevailing conditions or figure out occurrences. Through undertaking research and collecting information, they can get an insight into major issues occurring in the society such as health issues.
Throughout history, great discoveries have been made, solutions to problems realized and great progress made in different sectors such as in the health sector through research. It is the foundation of great discoveries and should be encouraged at all cost.
Ambiguous social and employment issues are common in the current labor market. These are common in organizations where the policies on staff welfare and issues such as rights to paternity leave and the duration of the same are not well clarified. The only way to gain this information in most cases lies with the individual’s own efforts in research on the issues arising.
Organizations are managed by policies, which at times are not well known to their employees. I have in the recent past experienced a situation where due to lack of clarity and lack of adequate information, I was not well versed in the rules and regulations associated with paternity leave and employee rights regarding the same. There lacked clarity on my part on the procedures to follow while applying for paternity leave and the duration for which the leave would last.
The two young women’s stories are quite shocking in that in this era of civilization and great advancement; there are women who are daily facing discrimination due their pregnancy. They ultimately have to forego enjoying the joys of motherhood.
Question 6 –Page 1
Dr. Gordon’s research question that guided her study was, “What are the perceptions and experiences of participants about their utilization of maternity leave benefits? In her quest for information, she hoped to understand whether organizational policies and employee perceptions match, and where there is a discrepancy what is the contributing factor.
Question 7 -Page
Jerry Nandler is a member of the House of Representatives who introduced ‘the Pregnant Workers Fairness Act ‘to the House. Upon introduction, the bill was unanimously supported by 105 sponsors after which it then proceeded to the House Subcommittee on the Constitution. The legislation he is proposing is important in that if passed it would make it unlawful not to provide for necessary accommodations in covered workplaces.
Question 8 - page 7, 8, and 9
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that implements employment related law plays a great role in enforcing the provisions of the “Pregnancy Discrimination Act”. Its main mandate is to guide employers and employees alike on issues regarding the administration of the law, and also educate the public through educational forums so that they understand the existing the Pregnancy Discrimination Act. The commission is expected to give answers to questions raised by the public.
Aside from educating the public, the Commission also has over the years tracked pregnancy-related discrimination cases that have been filed with the agency by employees and consequently assisted in their resolution.
Question 9 – Page 10
Question 10page 11
The U. S has been at the forefront in assisting families meet the high costs of childcare. To ensure that these efforts are implemented, the Congress enacted laws to assist families with the same. In the 1970’s changes were made to the laws. The addition of childcare credits to the then existing tax code. All these changes to the laws were mean to have a progressive tax code as opposed to being regressive. These laws have greatly helped many women with young children get into employment.
Question 11 –Page 15, 16
The Family and Medical Leave Act exists for the purpose of dealing with the dynamic nature of the American workforce. Due to the rising costs of living, it was deemed necessary to have the Medical and Leave Act to improve employee’s performance at work as they derive job satisfaction. The leave would give employees time off to take care of their family needs and develop themselves socially.
Years after the establishment of this law, the rationale for the law still makes sense even in the current times. The law, which applies to the majority of the organizations greatly, assists workers attain work-life balance and improve their productivity. The Act is therefore much more relevant in current times as there is increased rise in the costs of living. Like any other act, its implementation faced several challenges such as lack of education from both the employer and the employee, and thereby causing conflict. Other problems include the inadequate notice from both parties and this result to conflict.
Question 12page 24
The writer presents the economic, social, and symbolic implications of maternity leave. It is true that according maternity leave results to improved economic growth. That is because the mothers who have been granted the time off to take care of their infants get back to work much more refreshed and ready to work. They, therefore, are more productive which reflects in improved output and overall profits.
Question 13 p 87
The data in Table 3: 1 gives information on birth rates and fertility rates, which helps to sheds light on the current employment patterns of working women in relation to fertility rates and maternity issues. The higher the fertility rates, the lower the availability of female labor supply. The information is, therefore, helpful in human resource planning since it assists an organization plan for both its current and future workforce needs to avoid having excess or shortages of labor.
Several benefits accrue to men taking paternity leave. Firstly, it is a time for them to bond with the baby as it grows up. Women too benefit in that they get help from their spouses in caring for the young ones. Therefore, paternity leave is most important in a family.
Several Benefits accrue to having a parental leave. Firstly, there is no ambiguity as to the nature of the leave taken as this is both clear to employees and the employer. Secondly, it will result in employee satisfaction since they can derive quality work life from their work. However, if both men and women take a leave that is called the same, it might result to confusion especially on how to allocate total number of days for the same.
The new trend, where women who have the financial means opt-out of work when they have a baby is a threat to the organization’s labor force as it leads to loss of competent cadre of employees. For HR managers, this means going back to the drawing board to source for potential employees who might possess the same skills as those of the women who leave.
For women who would like to stay at home but lack the financial and economic ability to do so, it means that they have to find a balance between their normal work schedules and to care for their young children.
Question 17- page 113-114
In this chapter, the writer focuses on some of the common problems that women experience in the course of their pregnancy. The lack of acceptable insurance covers to enable them access health facilities and have the best care is concerning. However, one important health factor is the issue of fertility. Infertility issues cut across the age gap and could be due to different causes. For instance, women who have delayed childbearing until in their later years might experience problems in becoming pregnant. As a result, they have to undergo expensive procedures to resolve this problem. Other causes of infertility problems include heavy smoking, drugs, and obesity.
That issue is important as it affects quite a large group of women and with the implementation of necessary preventive health measures; it can be mitigated. Employers who provide medical covers especially for maternity services for their employees greatly assist in minimizing the rampant spread and rise in statistical figures of women suffering from infertility related complications.
Question: 18 page 118
The writer highlights infant mortality as a common health issue prevailing in the current times. It can be related to different causes such as infection during childbirth or during the earlier years of growing up. If these infections are not treated early, enough they become severe, thereby causing the child their life. At times, especially in the case of a working mother, who might not give adequate attention to their child, the infant faces the likelihood of facing health hazards that might be fatal. Similarly, if the child does not have an adequate medical cover, it might be difficult to treat him/ her early enough before the illness progresses. It is important to address this issue so that solutions to reducing this tragic occurrence is sought and lives sought. Without addressing such issues as child mortality, the future of the nation is threatened.
The optimal length of maternity leave is twelve weeks. In my opinion, this is not enough time for the women to rest and thereby be protected from postpartum depression. That is because they have time to relax away from their demanding daily work schedules. It is necessary that a mother has ample time to take care of her newborn baby as the first few months of the baby are critical and important in its growth and development. Therefore, the twelve weeks currently set for maternity leave do not adequately cover the needs of the growing baby.
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