Type of paper: Report

Topic: Solar Energy, Energy, Electricity, Power, Wind, Alternative Energy, Renewable Energy, Grid

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2021/02/01

An electrical grid refers to an interconnected system that transfers electricity from suppliers to the consumers (Amin & Stringer, 2008). It is composed of several stations where electricity is produced then shifted to demand centers and lastly to the customers. Power stations are situated near the energy source, for example, a dam or near the source of various renewable energies, which is mostly in a sparsely populated area (Amin & Stringer, 2008). The electricity produced at the power station is usually in very high voltage, and it is transferred through transmission networks to the electricity companies. Here the power voltage is lowered as it is distributed to individual customers (Amin & Stringer, 2008). In this paper, we will look at the advantages and disadvantages of integrating various renewable energy sources into national electrical grid systems in terms of environmental impact, costs involved, and load balancing. The various renewable energy sources include Solar PV, Wind, Hydro, and Biomass Electricity (including waste incineration). Solar photovoltaic (PV) Solar power integration into the electricity grid is very common in many parts of the world because of its numerous advantages. Solar uses photovoltaic (PV) to convert sunlight into electricity using solar panels. Using solar PV to generate electricity is still expensive even though technology has substantially developed (Helston, n.d.). Generating electricity using solar PV is more expensive than using coal or gas to produce electricity. The cost of the power station depends on its size and additionally the where it is located, and the value of the land. It is estimated that a 10MW system cost approximately $80 million. Therefore, the Sania’s power plant in Canada cost $600 million. The government of Ontario stated that more $400 million had been used to finance phase two of the power plant to increase the 20 MW to 60 MW. Solar PV also depends on an irregular energy source. This could prompt energy deficiencies if the region depends heavily on solar power. This is the same for wind energy, and it is referred to as intermittency problem (Energy, n.d.). Solar energy minimizes the problems faced with water issues connected with solar power plants. In the case of solar energy, water is only used is for occasionally rinsing the solar panels and not for cooling. The requirement for land used to build a power plant is not constant. Land used for a coal plant ordinarily requires between 640-1,280 acres of land to generate 1,000 MW, while, on the other hand, a solar power plant requires 12,160 acres of land to produce 1,000MW. Despite the fact that wind power utilizes the largest space, the same land can be used for farming and livestock keeping. This co-management is not possible where land is used to produce energy using solar power (Helston, n.d.). Solar PV does not require maintenance, therefore after the initial costs the operating costs is minimal compared to other renewable energies. In the future, renewable energy will become cheaper while fossil powers will become expensive. Over the past few years, a PV module for every MW has dropped by over 50%, making solar energy more desirable than electricity. Very little study has been done on solar energy hence more can be done to generate more electricity using solar PV. Solar energy is becoming more effective, and the cost of producing electricity using solar PV is decreasing. Wind Power For a long time wind energy has been used for only small-scale production but in the past few years, it is being used in large-scale production (International Electro technical Commission, 2012). “In the baseline scenario presented recently by the European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), the share of fluctuating renewable energy (mainly wind and solar energy) is expected to reach 17 % in 2030 and 24 % in 2050” (Timpe, Bauknecht, Koch & Lynch, 2010). There are numerous benefits of using wind power over fossil fuel in relation to power (Helston, n.d.). Wind power does not emit gasses during electricity generation, and no water is required. Despite all this wind is still more expensive than gas plant. The reason for this is for coastal wind, and 75% of the expenses are for installing the turbines. This is extremely expensive. Of that, 75% is for the development of the turbines while about 9% is for the transmission lines. The rest of is used to building establishments and roads and rent. A few years back wind power was not widely used, as it is presently (Energy, n.d.). Wind power produce noise, which is a primary concern to nearby inhabitants, this sound, comes from the turbine during low frequency. Low-frequency noise is known to cause headaches, hypertension, and anxiety-related diseases; they are called the "wind-turbine syndrome."
The study of, "Wind Turbine Sound and Health Effects" by a board of autonomous researchers found that the perceptible commotion made by wind turbines did not straightforwardly bring on any serious wellbeing issues either. The sounds wind turbines make could cause "disturbance" and lead to a lack of sleep among a "little" a piece of the populace living close wind turbines. Their discoveries demonstrate then again that regardless of the far-reaching media consideration the gathered wellbeing effects of wind force have gotten, there remains no associate inspected confirmation that "wind-turbine disorder" exists. The expression "wind turbine disorder" does not show up in any restorative writing any place and seems to have been authored by hostile to turn improvement activists (Helston, n.d.). Hydro Power The cost of putting up a hydroelectric power plant depends on the state of the site, and the kind of office being developed. The fundamental ventures fixate on the designing, gear, and the turbine. The electrical generator constitutes less than 5% of the aggregate expense of a force plant. The expenses of the dam are 40 to half of the general costs. Mechanical segments, for example, the turbines are around 20-25% for bigger plants and 30% for smaller stations. 5-10% is devoured by the electrical establishments. New expenses for ecological purposes, such as fish ladders, can prompt increments in expenses. Likewise, with other renewable vitality sources, the in initial costs are high while the operation stage provides an opportunity to save money. The primary purpose behind this is the disposal of obtaining extravagant fuel. The yearly maintenance expenses are around 1-4% of the general investment (International Electro technical Commission, 2012). Bio fuels The subject of whether bio fuels is environmentally friendly is disputable, and even experimental examination to investigate vitality input and yield is regularly accused of inclination. Calculations are skewed by what components are incorporated or avoided, and by conflicting routines for measuring the vitality offset, or EROI (Energy, n.d.). A study referenced by Julio de Castro reported a vitality offset of 8.3 for sugarcane-based ethanol, implying that for each unit of fossil fills utilized, 8.3 units of stick ethanol are created. While much lower than that of stick ethanol, corn ethanol is still inadequately adjusted for gas, which requires 1.23 mJ of fossil energies to make a solitary unit of gas, issuing it a negative offset. Switch grass, the natural ideal specimen of cellulosic feedstocks, was accounted for in a recent report to show a vitality equalization of 5.4. Some studies have given it a lower offset, but still a positive one. The energy equalization of switch grass could mean a monstrous inversion from grain-inferred feedstock to cellulosic ones (Helston, n.d.).
Conclusion Electricity is crucial for the sustenance and development of any country. States should use the renewable energy source that is less costly but at the same time produces maximum benefits for its people. The renewable energy source should not affect the environment or cause health conditions to the neighboring people; instead, the power plants should be located far away from the population. The governments should also try to combine different renewable energy sources so that they can save more money, as this will also benefit the end user who will pay less money for the electricity.


Amin, M., & Stringer, J. (2008). The Electric Power Grid: Today and Tomorrow. Massoud Amin. Retrieved 7 April 2015, from http://www.massoud-amin.umn.edu/publications/The_Grid_Amin_Stringer.pdf
Energy. (n.d). Transmission and Grid Intergaration. Retrieved 7 April 2015, from http://www1.eere.energy.gov/wind/pdfs/46187.pdf
Helston, C. (n.d). Solar Photovoltaics. Energybc.ca. Retrieved 7 April 2015, from http://www.energybc.ca/profiles/solarpv.html
International Electro technical Commission. (2012). Grid integration of large-capacity Renewable
Energy sources and use of large-capacity Electrical Energy Storage. Iec. Retrieved 7 m
Timpe, C., Bauknecht, D., Koch, M., & Lynch, C. (2010). Integration of electricity from renewable energy sources into European electricity grids. eionet. Retrieved 7 April 2015, from http://acm.eionet.europa.eu/reports/docs/ETCACC_TP_2010_18_REG_Integration.pdf

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