Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Geology, Europe, Germany, Mountains, Water, Earth, World, Nature

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2021/03/21

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Introduction

Geology in translation from Greek refers to the science of the Earth. Currently, geology is a history of the Earth in the broad sense of the word - not only the life of our planet's mineral and those physical and chemical changes that occurred in it, but also the natural history of the whole organized world, inhabiting the Earth's surface.
In many natural sciences geology occupies a prominent position, closely with other natural history sciences. In the study of mineral changes of the Earth geology is contacting with chemistry, physics, mineralogy, and even astronomy, especially in the analysis of the origin of the Earth. In the study of fossil remains of organized geology comes into close relations with botany and zoology. In the study of the former changes on the earth's surface it comes in close connection with the physical geography, and studying modern geological phenomena, it is not so much interested in the reasons of how those results that leave these phenomena on the Earth's surface.
Thus, geology studies the formation and structure of the stone shell of the Earth. In contrast to the Life Sciences - zoology and botany - geology is often called the science of "dead nature." But in fact this nature is not dead. By the influence of air, water and sunlight, frost and other natural forces of the earth sheath is continuously changed. A careful observer can grasp and observe a very interesting life "dead nature." Not less than the biological sciences, geology teaches a human to consciously attend to the phenomena of nature and understand it. Not knowing the basics of geology, one sees only the external. He contemplates various forms of relief: gullies, cliffs, slopes, valleys, hills, rocks, mountain ranges, snow peaks - often marvel at the beauty of them, but has no idea how they were formed.

In this paper we will describe and discuss the geology of Germany, how it was formed and its significant characteristics.

Tectonics and Topography
The variety of terrain reflects the complexity of the geological structure, largely determines the differences in land cover, climate, the formation of the river network. In Germany flat terrain is dominated, more than 50% of the country is lowland.
The relief is getting higher from north to south across the country and is divided into five scenic areas: the North German Plain with distinct forms of glacial relief; high mountains and hills (Rhenish Massif up to 880 m, the Weser Mountains, the Thuringian Forest, in the center of the country - an array of Harz, in the east - the Ore Mountains on the border with the Czech Republic and the Bavarian Lic) Southwest German Medium (Black Forest, Odenwald , Shpesart et al.); South piedmont (Swabian-Bavarian plateau of 600 m in the north to 300 m in the south, the Danube Lowland) Bavarian Alps - advanced ranges of the Eastern Alps with a broad development of glacial and karst landforms. Within Germany includes the northern ranges of the Alps. To the west is dominated by low ridges are composed of sandstones, but in Bavaria, south of Munich, also represented Northern Limestone Alps. Here is the highest point in Germany - the Zugspitze (2962 m).
The northern part of Germany is within the North European Plain (stretches from west to east, nearly 600 km long and 200-300 km), where well-preserved traces of glaciation (particularly pronounced in the northeast) in the form of moraine plains, Zandra, valleys Photo glacial water and other forms of glacial relief. Shores of the North Sea and Baltic Sea are mostly low, flat, dissected by bays and estuaries. Along the North Sea coast stretches band watt, their external boundaries are East Frisian and North Frisian Islands.
In the north-east there are large hilly moraine hills and numerous lakes (Lakes zone of the Baltic). Mainly distributed loose deposits are gravel, sand and clay, including the thickness of brown coal, which were formed in the marshes among the deltas. To the east of Rostock numerous bays on the coast of the mainland and the island of Ruegen were distinguished from the sea by sand ramparts, which led to the formation of lagoons, known as the "Bodden". In many areas of lowland sandy areas, called Hestia, are separated by river valleys and marshy hollows. Flooded only at high tide marches after reclamation are used in agriculture.
Foothills form the transition to the low and medium elevation (600-1400 m). Orographic objects of this part of Germany are the Rhenish Massif, up to 880 m, the Weser Mountains, hills and low mountains Upland Hesse, part of the Harz, up to 1142 m, the Black Forest, up to 1493 m, Odenwald, Spessart, Hardt and others. Along the border with the Czech Republic raised ridges of the Šumava (up to 1456 m) and the Bohemian Forest to the west of them - Mid arrays - Bavarian Forest, Fichtel and Schwabe-Franconian cuesta area with numerous karst.
Relief throughout the middle part of the country is different mosaic. Leveled surfaces on mountain tops are in stark contrast to the steep slopes. Mountain ranges are plateau-like surface, rising from the neighboring plains steps to heights of 1,000 meters. While in some places are allocated higher peaks, such as Mount Feldberg in the Black Forest height of 1493 m. The top surface is deeply cut valleys planted with steep slopes.
Strong differences are observed in the region of the relief of the Rhine graben cuts through the Vosges and Black Forest. In the valley between Bingen and Koblenz steep slopes of the mountains come close to the very bed of the Rhine, alternating with more gently sloping areas where the development of terraces occupied by vineyards. In some places under the influence of the Alpine orogenic movements were formed deep dive depressions occupied by marine and lacustrine basins, which are filled by clays, sands and gravels. Formed in this way lowlands still exist.
 On the tectonic movements along the faults was associated volcanic activity in the mountains of Central Germany. More ancient volcanic structures, such as an array of Vogelsberg (774 m) in Hesse, badly damaged by erosion, while craters and cinder cones Eifel look as if they were formed recently. Traces of volcanic activity are numerous hot mineral springs. Overall area of the mountains did not create great difficulties for either transport or for agriculture and forestry development, and large forests in the past and significant resources of metallic and nonmetallic minerals contributed to their early settlement and economic development.
In the south, the site Prealpine marginal basin, located Bavarian plateau (height of 600 m in the north to 300 m in the south) with a predominance of glacial-accumulative relief. In the extreme south of Germany are advanced ranges of the Eastern Alps (up to 2962 m - Zugspitze), with extensive development of glacial and karst landforms.

Geological Structure

The territory of the Federal Republic of Germany is located within the Central European young platform (in the north) and the Hercynian folded region (in the south). The foundation of the Central European platform in the North Caledonian age, to the south - Hercynian at a depth of 1-8 km. Sedimentary cover is represented by carbonate, sand and clay deposits of the Devonian and Carboniferous, variegated lithological composition of Permian and Triassic strata, which are associated with evaporite deposits of potash and rock salt, and sand-clay rocks of the Jurassic, Cretaceous and Cenozoic.
In the south, the Central European platform area limited Hercynian fold region (iron-manganese deposits and polymetallic ores, barite, fluorite), which are divided into 6 zones. Zone foredeeps made thick (up to 5.5 km) coal-bearing formations of Middle and Upper Carboniferous (Ruhr Coal Basin). Rhenohertz zone (Rhenish Massif and the Harz) composed powerful slate-flysch strata of Devonian - Lower Carboniferous volcanic rocks with layers and small plutonium granitoids.
The extreme south of the country occupies an area of ​​Alpine folding, which covers composed of Mesozoic carbonates external zone of the Eastern Alps (polymetallic deposits, copper and uranium ores) and piedmont foredeep, which is associated with oil and gas. The sixth area is the territory of East Germany, which is adjacent to the south-western edge of the ancient East European platform and is covered by Quaternary sediments, mainly Pleistocene ice, which is dominated by moraine, fluvio-glacial and alluvial formation of up to 300 m.
Mesozoic sediments exposed in the north on about. Rügen (chalk), in the south to the north of Harz and Thuringia (Triassic) Paleozoic - Flehtingenskih at altitudes (Carboniferous-Permian) in the Harz (Silurian-Permian) in the Thuringian Forest, Thuringian Slate Mountains and the Ore Mountains (Cambrian-Permian); Proterozoic metamorphic formations are not older than 1 billion years - in DOS. in the Erzgebirge and Oberlausitz. On the platform cover sediments associated deposits of brown coal, potash, copper-bearing shales, oil and gas, with varistsiyskimy facilities - lead-zinc, iron, uranium and other ores.
The territory of the Federal Republic of Germany within the Central European platform is almost aseismic, in the southern mountainous areas of weak seismicity.

Works Cited

Brinkmann, Roland. Geologic Evolution of Europe. Stuttgart: F. Enke;, 1960. Print.
Geology of the European Countries. Paris: Dunod ;, 1980. Print.
Moores, Eldridge M. Encyclopedia of European and Asian Regional Geology. London: Chapman & Hall, 1997. Print.
Ttig, Gerd. General Geology of the Federal Republic of Germany: With Two Excursions to Industrial Mineral Rocks and Environmental Research. Stuttgart: Schweizerbart, 1980. Print.

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