Good Example Of Essay On Removal To Red Power

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: United States, America, History, Education, Government, Aliens, Politics, Family

Pages: 9

Words: 2475

Published: 2021/02/20

New WowEssays Premium Database!

Find the biggest directory of over
1 million paper examples!

Removal to Red Power

Introduction
This paper critically explores and analyzes the motives behind the Dawes Act. the law has had a negative impact on American Indians, as it committed to public ownership of real estate, which provided each shelter and a place in the tribe. From the beginning, the functioning of the state policy for Native Americans focused on their complete assimilation and the complete destruction of the national identity (Reich, D. et al., 2012, pp.370–374). However, it meant the permanent loss of an Indian traditional way of life and the elimination of the traditional system of values, which, in particular, is in respect of them to the ground (Wong, et al., 1996, p.233). The basic concept of public policy was necessary to convince that Indians did not use the land collectively this was to install their minds in private property, and foster the development of inherent psychology to small farmers. This concept was the ideological pillar on which the US government has always relied since the days of Thomas Jefferson, according to which the small landowner is salt of the earth, the backbone of the nation and the repository of all the virtues of civil society. On this basis, in 1887, Senator Henry Dawes of Massachusetts proposed a bill that for decades defined the policy of the American government in relation to the Indians.

Analysis

Dawes Act was aimed at the destruction of communal land ownership of Indians and it had shared it in private ownership, which in turn meant the inevitable destruction of all tribal organisations of indigenous people of North America. The initiators of the law present it as "barbarians" (Indians) to the fruits of the civilisation of the white man. In the mystery remained another, hidden but most important motive of Dawes Act, which was the desire to train land companies to profit from most of the Indian territories at the expense of the government expropriated. Under this law, the division of land ownership tribe head of each Indian family was cut put on 160 acres (647.500 square meters or 64.75 hectares). The rest of the adult family members unsubscribe at 80 acres (323.700 square meters or 32.37 hectares). Under these rules, only a minority of the land of the tribe passed into the private ownership of the Indians while the government having the right to sell them received the majority of benefit (Reich, D. et al., 2012, pp.370–374). By the beginning of 20th century, Indian reservations were produced by section 118. As a result, the Indians lost 86 million acres of land (62%) belonging to them before 1887 (Bernholz, et al., 2009, pp.180–185).
Implemented by law Dawes translation of the whole of life of bourgeois on rails brought them untold and irreparable misfortune and Indians were exposed to destruction entire way, their socio-economic and ethnic basis, as well as identity fed by centuries of tradition and culture. In return, benefits enjoyed by white Americans, the Indians were promised the right to private property and citizenship (Mulligan, C.J. et al., 2004, pp. 295–315). In fact, it was a hoax, and white civilisation knew about it (Herrera, 2007, pp.661–663).
Experience has shown that common ownership of land and tribal way of life is for Indians only, their self-preservation, and for saving their ethnic community and culture. The authors of the Dawes Act hypocritically ignored the fact that the Indians did not know how to write or speak English, not even know lifestyle of white people, and looked down upon them as inferior race; who could not in bulk retain allotments as Americans really take advantage of rights granted to them (Herrera, 2007, pp.661–663). Undoubtedly, it was the most destructive and hard law ever designed "for the benefit" of the Indians (Biolsi, 2007. n.p.). Teller called the Dawes Act bill intended to deprive the Indians of their lands' booking in order to become wanderers in this world (Hebda & Mathewes, 1984, pp.711–713). According to the initiators of this law, it is believed that the violation of the religious beliefs of Indians and desecrating their morale will be capable to force the Indians to live on the earth, holding them in private (Stremlau, 2005, pp.265–286).
The founder of Indian Education Captain Richard Henry Pratt also negatively commented on the Dawes Act, he had his own vision on the issue of Indians and believed that the Indians are not allocated to an acre and putting them on a small piece of the American Indian land, which can kill them. The U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt later called Dawes Act a powerful engine shredding and destruction of tribal foundations (Campbell, 2000, n.p.). The most resonant sounded assessment given on Dawes Act by the Committee on Indian Affairs, US House of Representatives believed that Transfer of Indian land allotment quarter does not make him a farmer. First, it states that an Indian, as well as other people able to take care of themselves, but then sounds the opposite, saying that Indians cannot and will not be able to take care of themselves. The result is that the bill isolates Indian from the outside world, leaving them only forward to receiving food from the government (McClellan, et al., 2005, pp.7–15). If Indians would be able to take care of themselves, then forcing them to earning their daily bread would not be mandatory and simply devoid of any logic (Hebda & Mathewes, 1984, pp.711–713).
Discarding all platitudes with respect to the Indians, members of the minority or the opponents Dawes Act summarises that the benefits for the Indians, predicts that Bill is just an excuse to capture the' booking lands and their further use (Fox, et al., 2007, pp.612–614). In the end, this will lead to the complete disappearance of the Indians, as everything will be done under the false slogan of "humanism" in order to satisfy the voracious appetites of our nation. Under this Bill, received the blessing of the head of the Department of the Interior, in an attempt to turn the Indian white man the most daring, and unjustified of all taken ever attack on his rights (Hill, 1997, pp.149–150). No matter, what level of civilisation would reach Indian tribes if preserved the tribal system, but in this system, they gradually develop immunity to civilisation and their opinions on the usefulness of what Bill offers them (Akee, & Jorgensen, 2014, pp.116–125). For Indians it would be much more useful if we had performed, even a small part of the agreements concluded with them and this is this just something we never do, and it seems that because of this bill, we never do (Hill, 1997, pp.149–150).
Government in accordance with the 'Dawes Act dedicated to the ownership of the land to the Indians (160 and 80 acres) per family provided for 25 years continued use of the land depended on the decision of the President of the United States. After this string is entered in the land registry, the tax could be held by the State. This land could be sold to the tenant according to the right to acquire property who had the status of a citizen of the United States. Surplus land remaining after the distribution of plots of Indians, according to the law shall be sold to the rest of the population. In practice, it is often "surplus" sold out even before it was distributed among Indian families (Goins, Pilkerton, 2010, pp.343–354).
Later, the Act was amended, and the head of the Department of the Interior granted the right to possession of Indian lands smallholder families of white people without regard to twenty-five years period (Bernholz, et al., 2009, pp.180–185). The American public believed that for 25 years restricts the rights of white and unreasonably long to wait for the transfer of ownership. As a result, during the 1917-1920 years, the government, ignoring the opinion of the Indians, shamelessly robbed them transferring ownership of patents for their lands 20,000 US citizens, which was two times the number of patents issued in 1917 (Isakson, & Sproles, 2008).
At the beginning of the entry into force of the provisions, Indian reserves were 130 million Acres. Forty-seven years (1934) allotment system was abolished, and the booking was already 48 million Acres, but it was mostly desert land unsuitable for agriculture classes. From their side periodically complained of, and demands were made to the government to stop the unprecedented in the history of Aboriginal robbery (Goins, Pilkerton, 2010, pp.343–354). However, the government and the Congress openly ignore these requirements (Almeida, 1997, pp.757–772).
Because of action Dawes Act tribal forms of government atrophied, while the federal oversight of the Indians strengthened and made effective allotment system brought its logical conclusion heavy burden on the shoulders of the Federal Agency for Indian Affairs, to shift the load of the process of assimilation of the Indians themselves. However, the survival of every However, the survival of every Indian depended on his ability to adapt (Carmack, et al., 1996. n.p.).
Senator Dawes, falling into error until recently considered to provide the Indians "bright future" and always referred to himself as "a friend of the Indians." However, those who brazenly seized the land of the Indians have been more realistic and looking at Dawes as their benefactor, not a guardian of the interests of the Indians (Hoxie, 2008. pp. 1153–1167).
During the period of Dawes Act the U.S., the government had once again taken on the education of the Indians. The very process of education for the Indians was the scourge with which they were confronted in the way of their cultural assimilation. Congress intended to open the on-reserve schools of general education, but until 1880, intentions remained only intentions. Moreover, the government on this issue did not give carte blanche to various confessional groups who were constantly rushed to the Indian missionary eyes flock (French, 1994, 1607-1887). Most Congressmen were convinced that the missionaries are only interested in new adherents, but not as in Indian education (Hoxie, 2008. pp. 1153–1167). According to contemporaries in areas where church services were held in the devout parishioners at times with emotion brought tears to the eyes when Indian children treated missionaries sang psalms that as a result it has contributed more devastation as purses these parishioners (Garrett & Pichette, 2000, pp.3–13.).
At the end of the nineteenth century Indians, reservations were completely isolated from the outside world, if we do not take into account those who were in low-paying administrative positions at the agency and were considered by some "magical" way already assimilated into white society (Nafziger & Dobkins, 1999, 8).
Various types of reformers and human rights defenders guided by good intentions, tried to defend the right of Indians to private ownership of the property, as they were deeply convinced that the mere fact of owning real estate would encourage the Indians to fight for their right to possess it (Kidd, J.R. et al., 2011. pp. 495–502). The "guardians" of Indian rights were not taken into account, then, that the very concept of private property, and even more foreign ownership of land to the Indians. Land for Indians is the common and indivisible shrine for all living creatures, and it was considered blasphemy in general any of the questions of monopolisation of land anyone.
Itself naive reluctance of Indians to own land was perceived white civilising as willful denial of the American way of life, and therefore the Americans were determined to completely emasculate the minds of Indians, such an attitude to the property, replacing it with greed and avarice as the main "virtues of civilised" man. US officials have never tried to understand the depth of the mentality of the Native Americans, to delve into the details of their social experience, values, and ideals, and therefore the entire problem solving in relation to the Indians accepted them (Patterson, 2000, p.182).
Therefore, in 1896 it was decided such an absurd solution designed to accelerate the process of assimilation, as the ban on the wearing of male Indians long hair. Because many Indian tribes as a sign of a tradition of deep mourning for close relatives short cut hair on the head, then the ban may be considered appropriate for all the tribes of North America actually has long come in mourning for a past age (Osburn, 1993 pp. 402–402). Education has long remained one of the priorities in the process of reformatting the Indians, and inadequate policies of the U.S. government in this regard continue to produce negative results (Pensley, 2005, pp.37–64).
Since 1892, Congress ordered the Federal Commissioner of Indian Affairs to conduct inspections in practice the learning process of the Indians. It was necessary necessarily representative authorised to attend classes and families of Indians, whose children were trained in industrial schools. In addition, Congress authorised rations depriving those families of Indians who deliberately refused to let their children to school (Watkins, 2004, pp.60–80). Even so-called "friends of the Indians" considered this harsh measure acceptable, since the famine in their opinion "would be an appropriate punishment for wayward Indians refusal to recognise what is good for them (Kidd, J.R. et al., 2011. pp. 495–502)."
Even in 1879, Captain Richard Henry Pratt started to give effect to the life of the federal education program, opening in Carlisle (Pennsylvania) Indian industrial school. In the US, there are around 1.6 million Indians; a little more than 500 thousand of them constantly live on reservations (Wunder, 2007. pp.591–604). The Indians now have two main sources of income from government subsidies and gambling. Despite the income derived from gambling, their standard of living remains at a very low level. 55% of Indians own their own home at the national average, and this figure exceeds 66%. Approximately 20% of the homes of Indians do not have water and sewage. The Indian house in 32% of cases are overpopulated - in three rooms can accommodate up to 25 people (Reich, D. et al., 2012. pp.370–374). Unemployment among Indians records high for the United States and it reaches 15%, and in some reserves - 80% (the national average is less than 6%). Despite the fact that Native Americans enjoy significant benefits for admission to institutions of higher education, and training them free, level of education among the Indians are extremely low (Wahab, 2007 pp.54–55). For example, a bachelor's degree ratio (awarded after graduation) is 9.3% Indians. Some reservations number of bachelor's less than 0.5% (Reich, D. et al., 2012. pp.370–374). In general, the US, the figure is 20.3% (Urban, 1991). Native Americans are twice more likely than other US residents, victims of violent crimes. Among the Indians a lot, more people who abuse alcohol, than in the whole United States (Stremlau, 2005, pp.265–286).

Conclusion

The provision of the obvious benefit of the Indians was an excuse to seize land and it was done in the name of greed, it would be bad, but do it in the name of humanity is infinitely worse. The amount of land in the hands of indigenous people quickly fell from about 150 million acres (610,000 km²) to a total of 78 million acres (320,000 km²). The remaining land once dedicated to certain Indians were declared surplus and sold to settlers, railways, and other major corporations, as part of the land has been converted into federal parks and military camps (Reyhner, 2008, pp.444–445). Dividing the land reserves on private plots, lawmakers hoped to complete the process of assimilation, destroying communal way of life of indigenous communities and imposing pro-Western ideology of strengthening the family unit and values, economic dependence strictly within the framework of a small household (Smith, 2005, pp.116–132). Land granted to most Indians, was not enough for the economic livelihood and the division of the land among the heirs after the death of the owners of the site led to fragmentation of land (Ramenofsky, et al., 2003, pp.241–257). Most leased land, which could be sold only after the expiration of the statutory period of 25 years, was eventually sold to non-indigenous customers at bargain prices.
As mentioned above, the cultural assimilation of Indians began with their children sent to study in the school production. In 1897, this process was given new impetus. Regulation bodies fully monitor the implementation of programs of Indian Indicates a mandatory education for children Indians strictly in English. For talking in their native language Indian children, are severely punished, even during a harmless game. No one knew then, and did not want to understand that the English language in a domestic environment. Teachers expected that students would be able to assimilate Indians material as quickly as disciple’s Anglos. However, practice proved far as it is , but not because the Indian children were, as is commonly understood as stupid or retarded, and the fact that there are large differences in mentality of a white man and an Indian. Perception of objects of life, attitudes towards these subjects the white and Indian were opposed, so the white man's science is fundamentally different from traditional science of Indians, accustomed to obey the laws of nature and not subject them to the will of man.`

Bibliography

Abel, Annie, The American Indian and the end of the Confederacy, 1863-1866
Abel, Annie, The American Indian in the Civil War, 1862-1865
Adams, David, Education for Extinction: American Indians and the Boarding School Experience, 1875-1928
Akee, R. & Jorgensen, M., 2014. Property institutions and business investment on American Indian reservations. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 46, pp.116–125. Available at:
Almeida, D., 1997. The hidden half: A history of Native American women’s education. Harvard Educational Review, 67, pp.757–772. Available at:
Anderson, Gary, Little Crow
Bernholz, C.D., Novotny, L.G. & Gomez, A.L., 2009. American Indians and the United States patent and trademark office: The Native American Tribal Insignia database. Government Information Quarterly, 26, pp.180–185.
Bernholz, C.D., Novotny, L.G. & Gomez, A.L., 2009. American Indians and the United States patent and trademark office: The Native American Tribal Insignia database. Government Information Quarterly, 26, pp.180–185.
Biolsi, T., 2007. A Companion to the Anthropology of American Indians,
Bolt, Christine, American Indian policy and American reform : case studies of the campaign to assimilate the American Indians
Brown, Dee, Bury my heart at Wounded Knee : an Indian history of the American West
Buscombe, Edward, 'Injuns!' : Native Americans in the movies
Calloway, Colin, First peoples : a documentary survey of American Indian history
Campbell, L., 2000. American Indian languages: the historical linguistics of Native America,
Carmack, R.M., Gasco, J. & Gossen, G.H., 1996. The Legacy of Mesoamerica : History and Culture of a Native American Civilization,
Churchill, Ward, A Little Matter of Genocide
Cobb, Daniel, Native Activism in Cold War America: The Struggle for Sovereignty
Collins, Peter, Hollywood's Indian : the portrayal of the Native American in film
Debo, Angie,A history of the Indians of the United States
Deloria, Philip, A Companion to American Indian history
Dippie, Brian, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and United States Indian Policy
Edmunds, R, The new warriors : Native American leaders since 1900
Elliott, Michael, Custerology: The Enduring Legacy of the Indian Wars and George Armstrong Custer
Fixico, Donald, Termination and Relocation : Federal Indian Policy, 1945-1960Flint, Kate, The transatlantic Indian, 1776-1930
Fox, M.J.T., Lowe, S.C. & McClellan, G.S., 2007. Serving Native American Students. Journal of College Student Development, 48, pp.612–614.
French, L.L., 1994. Measuring others by themselves: Images of Native Americans in American literature, 1607-1887.
Garrett, M.T. & Pichette, E.F., 2000. Red as an Apple: Native American Acculturation and Counseling With or Without Reservation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 78, pp.3–13.
Goins, R.T. & Pilkerton, C.S., 2010. Comorbidity among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 25, pp.343–354.
Harring, Sidney, Crow Dog's case : American Indian sovereignty, tribal law, and United States law in the nineteenth century
Hebda, R.J. & Mathewes, R.W., 1984. Holocene history of cedar and native Indian cultures of the north american pacific coast. Science (New York, N.Y.), 225, pp.711–713.
Herrera, R.A., 2007. Beyond Black and Red: African-Native Relations in Colonial Latin America (review). The Americas, 63, pp.661–663.
Hill, P.E., 1997. Changing Woman: A History of Racial Ethnic Women in Modern America. History: Reviews of New Books, 25, pp.149–150.
Hillstrom, Kevin, Defining Moments: American Indian Removal and the Trail to Wounded Knee
Horsman, Reginald, Expansion and American Indian policy, 1783-1812
Hoxie, F.E., 2008. Retrieving the Red Continent: settler colonialism and the history of American Indians in the US. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 31, pp.1153–1167.
Hurtado, Albert, Major problems in American Indian history : documents and essays
Irwin, Lee, Coming down from above : prophecy, resistance, and renewal in Native American religions
Isakson, H.R. & Sproles, S., 2008. A Brief History of Native American Land Ownership. Indigenous Peoples and Real Estate Valuation.
Kakel, Carroll, The American West and the Nazi East
Kidd, J.R. et al., 2011. Single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in Native American populations. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 146, pp.495–502.
Martin, Joel, The land looks after us : a history of Native American religion
McClellan, G.S., Tippeconnic Fox Comanche, M.J. & Lowe Navajo, S.C., 2005. Where we have been: A history of Native American higher education. New Directions for Student Services, 2005, pp.7–15. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ss.149/abstract.
Moquin, Wayne, Great documents in American Indian history
Mulligan, C.J. et al., 2004. Population genetics, history, and health patterns in native americans. Annual review of genomics and human genetics, 5, pp.295–315.
Nafziger, J. & Dobkins, R., 1999. The native American graves protection and repatriation act in its first decade. International Journal of Cultural Property, 8.
Osburn KMB (1993) ‘And as the squaws are a secondary consideration’: Southern Ute women under directed culture change, 1887-1934. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, 402–402 p.
Ostler, Jeffrey, The Plains Sioux and U.S. colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee
Patterson, L., 2000. History and Status of Native Americans in Librarianship. Library Trends, 49, p.182..
Pearce, Roy, Savagism and civilization a study of the Indian and the American mind
Pensley, D.S., 2005. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (1990): Where the Native Voice Is Missing. Wicazo Sa Review, 20, pp.37–64.
Philp, Kenneth, Termination Revisited: American Indians on the Trail to Self-determination, 1933-1953
Prucha, Francis, The Great Father: United States Government and the American Indians
Raibmon, P., 2006. Indians in Unexpected Places. Ethnohistory, 53, pp.779–780.
Ramenofsky, A.F., Wilbur, A.K. & Stone, A.C., 2003. Native American Disease History: Past, Present and Future Directions. World Archaeology, 35, pp.241–257..
Reich, D. et al., 2012. Reconstructing Native American population history. Nature, 488 (7411), pp.370–374.
Reich, D. et al., 2012. Reconstructing Native American population history. Nature, 488, pp.370–374.
Reyhner, J., 2008. Native American Life-History Narratives: Colonial and Postcolonial Navajo Ethnography (review). Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 111, pp.444–445.
Slotkin, Richard, Gunfighter Nation: The Myth of the Frontier in Twentieth-century America
Smith, A., 2005. Native American Feminism, Sovereignty, and Social Change. Feminist Studies, 31, pp.116–132.
Smith, Rex Alan, Moon of Popping Trees
Stannard, David, American Holocaust
Stedman, Raymond, Shadows of the Indian : stereotypes in American culture
Stremlau, R., 2005. “To Domesticate and Civilize Wild Indians”: Allotment and the Campaign to Reform Indian Families, 1875-1887. Journal of Family History, 30, pp.265–286.
Stremlau, R., 2005. “To Domesticate and Civilize Wild Indians”: Allotment and the Campaign to Reform Indian Families, 1875-1887. Journal of Family History, 30, pp.265–286.
Taylot, Graham, The New Deal and American Indian tribalism : the administration of the Indian Reorganization Act, 1934-45.
Thornton, Russell, American Indian holocaust and survival : a population history since 1492
Townsend, Camilla, American Indian history : a documentary reader
Trafzer, Clifford (ed)Boarding School Blues: Revisiting American Indian Educational Experiences
Ulrich, Roberta, American Indian nations from termination to restoration, 1953-2006
Urban, G., 1991. A discourse-centered approach to culture : native South American myths and rituals,
Wahab, S., 2007. White Slave Crusades: Race, Gender, and Anti-vice Activism, 1887-1917. Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews, 36, pp.54–55.
Watkins, J., 2004. Becoming American or Becoming Indian?: NAGPRA, Kennewick and Cultural Affiliation. Journal of Social Archaeology, 4, pp.60–80.
Weeks, Philip, Farewell, my nation : the American Indian and the United States, 1820-1890
Wilson, James,The Earth Shall Weep
Wong, S.L. et al., 1996. Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got Wrong. Contemporary Sociology, 25, p.233.
Wunder, J.R., 2007. Native American History, Ethnohistory, and Context. Ethnohistory, 54, pp.591–604.

Cite this page
Choose cite format:
  • APA
  • MLA
  • Harvard
  • Vancouver
  • Chicago
  • ASA
  • IEEE
  • AMA
WePapers. (2021, February, 20) Good Example Of Essay On Removal To Red Power. Retrieved May 06, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-essay-on-removal-to-red-power/
"Good Example Of Essay On Removal To Red Power." WePapers, 20 Feb. 2021, https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-essay-on-removal-to-red-power/. Accessed 06 May 2021.
WePapers. 2021. Good Example Of Essay On Removal To Red Power., viewed May 06 2021, <https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-essay-on-removal-to-red-power/>
WePapers. Good Example Of Essay On Removal To Red Power. [Internet]. February 2021. [Accessed May 06, 2021]. Available from: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-essay-on-removal-to-red-power/
"Good Example Of Essay On Removal To Red Power." WePapers, Feb 20, 2021. Accessed May 06, 2021. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-essay-on-removal-to-red-power/
WePapers. 2021. "Good Example Of Essay On Removal To Red Power." Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. Retrieved May 06, 2021. (https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-essay-on-removal-to-red-power/).
"Good Example Of Essay On Removal To Red Power," Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com, 20-Feb-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-essay-on-removal-to-red-power/. [Accessed: 06-May-2021].
Good Example Of Essay On Removal To Red Power. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/good-example-of-essay-on-removal-to-red-power/. Published Feb 20, 2021. Accessed May 06, 2021.
Copy

Share with friends using:

Please remember that this paper is open-access and other students can use it too.

If you need an original paper created exclusively for you, hire one of our brilliant writers!

GET UNIQUE PAPER
Related Premium Essays
Contact us
Chat now