Homeland Security And Emergency Management Research Paper Example
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Most of the losses occur due to the lapses in disaster management. Therefore, disaster management requires total commitment in establishing plans that the citizenry can adopt to cope with the adversities thereby reducing the exposure to risk. Nonetheless, most countries do not put emphasis on the need to study the disaster management courses due to the inconsistency in the area. As a result, they provide the loop holes for the spread of a loss in case of a disaster outbreak (Hetzel & American Bar Association, 2010).
In addition, negligence leads to the slowdown of the rescue missions during disaster because some people tend to crowd in order to witness rather than help the rescue team in the evacuation. For instance, most people are less prepared to deal with earthquakes and hurricanes when they occur. Nonetheless, some of the victims lack adequate knowledge on how to handle the tragedy in case they occur. In addition, others do not have the emergency numbers they could contact the experts who offer great assistance evacuating and helping the people (Birkland, 2006).
Why do earthquake accidents become hard to contain in homeland countries? Earthquakes and hurricanes outbreaks result to massive financial losses and deaths. In cases of the accidents, the rescue team saves little due to the several hitches that delay the process of accessing the area. The fires gun down the residential homes and businesses thereby destroying everything. Nonetheless, the research indicates that very few people take precaution measures during the crisis, for instance, few people evacuate the areas prone to earthquakes tragedies (Bullock, Haddow, & Coppola, 2013).
The people regard some residential areas as less prone to earthquakes hence the unwillingness to evacuate the areas even after the warning. On the other hand, people tend to concentrate on the property they would lose instead of their lives. The governments should demand that every individual should move in case of impending warnings from the seismologists. For this reason, the failure to move from the disaster prone areas must it attract some fines thereby reducing the number of deaths. In addition, people could save some percentage of property thereby protecting themselves against economic recessions.
Negligence and poor planning leads to the massive destruction of the disaster occurrences. However, some individuals never take precaution due to the availability of a disaster management team in a country. Therefore, such people assume that they would get first-hand help in case of the disaster. Nonetheless, there is need to educate the people to take precaution measures because it helps control the earthquake and hurricanes the experts arrive. As a result, the little information helps in saving some lives and property. The unwillingness of the people to learn on how to handle the tragedy in relation to the victims and the property leads to massive property destruction and loss of lives.
On the other hand, the poor planning during the construction of the residential houses exposes some people to the more danger than others. For instance, building of the houses close to each other eases the dangers and the risks because it hinders the earthquake evacuator from accessing the scene. Therefore, the victims cannot help each other and they end up dying due to helplessness. In most cases, the deaths and the losses occur due to the inaccessibility of the places thereby making it hard for the experts and the machines to evacuate the victims. Therefore, it is essential to leave some adequate space to ease the movement of the vehicles and the people in case of a disaster. Nonetheless, the planners should offer advice when it comes to putting up of structures in the earthquake prone areas because some people build residential houses without the knowledge on the intensity of earthquake if it would occur (Campbell, 2008).
There are other factors that lead to the inability to evacuate and control earthquake in a country. Therefore, one cannot conclude that poor planning and negligence are the only factors that make it difficult in earthquake and hurricane management. For instance, the inadequacy of the seismologists, increases high risks of the inability to control the disaster. As a result, the reduced numbers of the seismologists become overwhelmed by the work of determining where an earthquake would hit a country leading to their exhaustion due to overworking. Nonetheless, some seismologists could also run out of proper machines that help in determining the areas prone to earthquake disaster. Therefore, the lapses provide an ample time for the disaster to get the people unprepared hence the massive loss of lives. The lapse also gives the public the time to bring in the unskilled labor, and it could lead to more injuries and deaths of the citizenry. The breakdown of the command from the leaders could also lead to the spread of a fire. Therefore, the leaders should possess most of the leadership qualities to provide a free flow of activities during a disaster (Bullock, Haddow, & Coppola, 2013).
The existence of the wet grounds in the residential areas increases the risks and chances of an earthquake. It is because in most cases, earthquakes hit the soft wet grounds. For this reason, people should avoid putting up houses on wet grounds because they expose themselves to more danger in case of an earthquake or hurricane occurrence. However, lack of preparedness causes massive losses. For instance, the lack of adequate vehicles delays the process of handling a disaster. Some disaster management companies do not have enough vehicles to cover the assigned areas. As a result, it delays the process due to the inadequacy of the resources. Therefore, the evacuators save few or no people during the disaster, for instance, it becomes hard for any individual to access the wet grounds due to the fear of sinking. In addition, the machines that help in clearing the collapsed buildings could also sink thereby leading to most of the evacuators from withdrawing from the saving process (Campbell, 2008).
Therefore, the disaster management companies could have all the necessary resources, but consume the time when assembling the machines. The inaccessibility nature of the areas hinders the evacuation processes. Consequently, they get to the disaster scene late when the fire has already consumed a great part. On the other hand, the tragedies get the victims unaware leading to the desperation and panic. It results to the inability of the people to act before the arrival of the specialized evacuators.
The slowed response of the evacuators could also contribute to the inability to contain the situation. Nonetheless, the management should look in to the matters that could lead to the delays. For instance, poor remunerations demotivate the evacuators thereby leading to their slow response. The evacuators could slowly respond due to the poor working standards. Therefore, the companies’ managements should liaise with the human resource departments to ensure that the workers get adequate remuneration. In addition, the human resource department should ensure that the evacuators get compensated for the overtime and the long hours worked (Hetzel & American Bar Association, 2010).
The evacuators should have the protective gear, for instance, the aprons, masks, boots and gloves, and the air containers to enable them handle the disaster with ease, and at the same time protect themselves from any harm. In some cases, the evacuators would fear to get in the collapsed buildings due to the lack of the adequate protective clothing. Everyone cares about one’s life. Therefore, there is need to address the issue of enhancing safe working conditions by providing the necessary materials needed in the line of duty. Additionally, the companies and the governments should provide insurance covers for the firefighters due to the risks associated with the job. The evacuators would feel safe if the insurance companies cover them because they know that they would meet the financial medical requirements in case of a disaster (Bullock, Haddow, & Coppola, 2013).
The evacuators also require adequate training in order to control the tragedies in the high risk areas. Research indicates that the effects of the earthquake spread due to the failure of the unskilled personnel in the disaster management industry. For this reason, the government and other regulatory authorities should legislate on the rules and regulations that the learning institutions should follow in order to provide the adequate training to the students. In addition, they should put the minimum requirements from ne to join the disaster management industry. It would help to reduce the negligence cases.
The government should embark on campaigns to educate the public on how to avoid the earthquake prone areas. As a result, the move would lead to a reduction in the losses incurred thereby controlling the living standards of the people. Financial losses, emotional instability, and the physical pin pain inflicted during the disaster outbreaks, and it negatively affects an individual. Therefore, it reduces the productivity levels resulting to the decline in the profitability level. Conversely, the campaigns would increase awareness on the areas to avoid and the relevant bodies to contact putting building the houses. On the other hand, the government campaigners should also offer practical evacuation lessons to the public. Moreover, they should provide the public with the emergency numbers to contact in case of a disaster. Therefore, it increases preparedness and efficacy in the evacuation process thereby saving more lives and property (Haddow, Bullock, & Coppola, 2014).
The government should also appoint a committee that consists of members who help in outlining the measures that could help reduce the impact of the earthquakes and hurricanes disasters. Additionally, the committee should target to prevent the earthquakes from breaking. The committee or another organ should then implement the plans designed by the committee. Nonetheless, during earthquake disasters, it is essential for the evacuators and the victims to communicate. When at the disaster scene, there is need to contact a manager to ensure the safety of the evacuators. The manager also coordinates the operations from outside the scene with the individuals in the building. For this reason, it becomes easy to know when an evacuator gets in to danger, for instance suffocation due to the collapsed buildings (Hetzel & American Bar Association, 2010).
However, the public need information on how to avoid the earthquake prone areas. For instance, run for higher grounds because the earthquakes mostly affect the lowly grounds. In addition, high intensity earthquakes cause fire thereby increasing the danger of the situation. Therefore, the citizenry should put avoid the use of the paraffin and other combustible objects in the earthquake prone areas a precaution measure. On the other hand, the hurricanes also help the fire to spread fast due to the wind. Therefore, the power companies should ensure that they repair faulty power lines because some electricity faults could lead to fire. For instance, transformer outbursts, and naked lines could cause fire making the occupants susceptible to more dangers in case of a high-intensity earthquake. For this reason, the power companies should constantly check the electricity lines to warrant the people security from the fire outbreaks (Birkland, 2006).
An individual should also apply mitigation during a disaster. Therefore, one takes the steps necessary to prevent a disaster. For instance, during an electricity fault, one is required to switch off from the main switch until the power company rectifies the problem. One could also cover the burning substance with a blanket in order to prevent more oxygen which promotes combustion. Moreover, one should warn other parties from getting in the building on fire emanating from the earthquakes because it helps in saving lives. One can use horns, whistles and use of red colors to signify danger. Keeping people away from the disaster areas, helps to improve efficacy in operations because; it becomes easy for the evacuators to contain the disaster using the shortest time possible. The huge crowds hinder the free flow of activities thereby slowing down the process.
In case the earthquake or hurricane tragedy traps an individual in a building, the experts should get in to search and rescue the victim. Nonetheless, the process requires skilled personnel because the unskilled individuals lack the capacity to handle such disasters. On the other hand, the rescuing personnel should have proper directions to the place because it helps save the time used to locate the area. One can identify the disastrous area through the use of maps, compasses or merely attractions from the huge crowds or the dust from the collapsed buildings. Directions compliment the preparedness of a team thereby becoming able to liaise with the necessary individuals for the help (Birkland, 2006).
The response in an earthquake tragedy varies on the basis of the intensity of the damage caused. In most cases, the disaster management team air lifts the earthquake victims to safer grounds. Nonetheless, there is a need to provide the victims with shelter, clothing, food and counseling because of the scenes are traumatizing. The provision of all the necessities helps in proving a teams’ preparedness to the public. The teams should take the affected victims to the hospitals as fast as possible to prevent more injuries and harms. Therefore, it helps in alleviating the pain in the victims hence a quick response to the medicines. Alternatively, the parties involved should mobilize the public to give donations to help the victims. The responsible parties use the donations got to pay the health care bills, clothing, food and shelter. It ends up promoting social cohesiveness hence the development of belonging in the country.
The recovery process also requires total commitments of the individuals and other parties. It means that after the hospital, the relevant bodies should provide remedies with an aim to reinstate the victims to the original state one was before the accident. Therefore, the recovery process helps in getting the victims back to their feet thereby enabling them to continue with income-generating activities. Keeping the victims busy eliminates social evils and idleness, which at times results to negative thinking, for instance, committing suicide. Therefore, the recover process is also a part in disaster management, which every disaster manager should observe to reduce conflicting issues. In addition, it helps improve the public image of the involved parties thereby increasing their credibility (Campbell, 2008).
The public also deserve to know the first aid tips they could provide to the victims before the arrival of the medical experts. The first aid tips helps in prevention of more blood or suffering from the individual thereby stabilizing them. Nonetheless, the on lookers should avoid moving the victims because it could deteriorate the health conditions, for instance, the constant movements could injure the spine thereby paralyzing the individual for the life time. First aid has become a home remedy for disaster management due to the ability to control the intensity of the pain. First aids help in saving most lives because it is essential to prevent more harm on the victim hence the restoration of the breath and strength.
In summation, the homeland security and emergency management need to get to a notch higher to help in saving more property and lives. Nonetheless, disaster preparedness is essential because it ensures minimization of the extents of the risks involved in a disaster. Therefore, the minimizations reduce the pains and the financial losses thus becoming easy to recuperate. Nonetheless, every individual should take the responsibility to gain knowledge on disaster preparedness, response, and recovery in disaster management. In addition, the government should introduce heavy fines on the negligent parties as a way of deterring and discouraging ant careless mistake that could lead to a disaster outbreak. Moreover, an individual should insure ones’ property against fire for security purposes of the uncertain circumstances.
Abbott, E. B., Hetzel, O. J., & American Bar Association. (2010). Homeland security and
emergency management: A legal guide for state and local governments. Chicago, IL: Section of State and Local Government Law, American Bar Association.
Birkland, T. (2006). Lessons of Disaster: Policy Change after Catastrophic Events. Washington:
Georgetown University Press.
Bullock, J. A., Haddow, G. D., & Coppola, D. P. (2013). Homeland security: The essentials.
Campbell, B. C. (2008). Disasters, accidents, and crises in American history: A reference guide to the nation's most catastrophic events. New York: Facts On File.
Haddow, G. D., Bullock, J. A., & Coppola, D. P. (2014). Introduction to emergency
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