Sample Essay On The French Empire Under Napoleon, The Ottoman Empire, And The Russian Empire
Type of paper: Essay
Topic: Empire, Turkey, Russia, Ottoman, French Revolution, Ottoman Empire, World War 1, Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte was a young military officer when he began his rise to power during the French Revolution. In 1804, following a series of military victories, he was granted the title of emperor and extended French rule over much of Europe. The Russian Empire, led by the Romanov dynasty, developed as a firm power as a result of a peace treaty with the Swedish in 1721, as well a series of military victories. The Ottoman Empire solidly came into being with the defeat of the last Byzantine emperor in Constantinople by Mehmed II.
Napoleon’s victories, resulting in land gains and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, increased his strength and he reestablished the French aristocracy that had been swept away during the French Revolution. Although he initially gained support by appealing to concerns of common people, he became increasing autocratic. Modernization and reforms, including widespread tax reform to support the military, allowed the Russian Empire to maintain power. Almost half of the Russian population existed as serfs bound to land or nobility and unable to enjoy the rights of free people. The Russian empire was large and the population was spread out. The Ottoman Empire regularly had frontier wars with border states but maintained peace at its heart in Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), which, importantly, remained a welcoming, religiously- tolerant, and multi-cultural city. However, the Ottoman government in Egypt was not well prepared to meet invading Napoleonic forces. The Ottoman Empire never experienced the industrialization that European cities were going through.
Napoleon’s disastrous attempt to invade Russia and losses in the Iberian Peninsula led to Napoleon’s abdication and exile. The Ottoman Empire lasted into the 20th century, although rising nationalism within the Empire, particularly in the Balkans, saw some splitting. Partitioning following World War I saw the end of the Ottoman Empire. The absolutist, autocratic rule practiced in the Russian Empire was largely responsible for its downfall. With the industrial revolution, serfs flocked to cities to work in factories, bringing unrest with them. This discontent, combined with Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, led to the end of the Russian Empire.