Some Infections Of The Upper Respiratory Tract Include: Essay Sample
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Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are infections of the throat, sinuses, lungs or airways. They are in most cases caused by viruses but can also be caused by bacteria. These are broken into; upper respiratory tract infections that affect the nose, sinuses and throat. And lower respiratory tract infections, these affect the lungs and airways.
• Common cold.
• Tonsillitis (a tonsil infection)
• Sinusitis (infects the sinuses)
• Laryngitis (affects the larynx)
A cough is a common symptom of an upper RTI. Others may include a stuffy or runny nose, headache, a sore throat, sneezing and muscle aches. Al these signs are crucial in telling the problem that one is suffering from and get the required medication for the disease.
Lower RTIs include:
• Flu (this affects both the lower and upper respiratory tract)
• Bronchitis (infects the airways)
• Pneumonia (infects lungs)
• Bronchiolitis (an infects of the small airways this affects children younger than two)
• Tuberculosis (a persistent bacterial infection that attacks the lungs)
One main symptom of a lower RTI is also a cough, although it is severe, and one may bring up mucus and phlegm. Other symptoms may be chest pain, an increased rate of breathing, breathlessness and wheezing. The symptoms in lower RTI may resemble, and it becomes hard for one to tell the real infection or disease affecting an individual.
There are more “perilous pathogens" in the Lower Respiratory Tract (LRT) because it is kept sterile, and is less exposed compared to the Upper Respiratory Tract. Any pathogens infecting the LRT have more perilous effects than they would in the upper. The concept is evidenced by the fact that many URT infections can be self-diagnosed and self-treated while nearly all Lower RTIs almost demand one to visit a physician. In light of the above, I did not mean to imply that some pathogens are more perilous than others, and in answer to the last question, no, i am not saying that Gram-positive bacteria are not perilous.
EMB stands for Eosin Methylene Blue Agar, which is a selective and differential medium that we use to separate fecal coliforms. Eosin Methylene Blue (EMB) contains dyes methylene and eosin. These dyes inhibit the growth of gram-positive bacteria, this means they select for gram-negative bacteria. EMB also contains the carbohydrate lactose, which allows differentiation of gram-negative bacteria basing on their ability to ferment lactose. Lactose is an energy generating element, and lack of proper digestion causes problems in the body.
Methylene blue combines with Eosin Y as pH indicators to produce a dark purple precipitate at low pH. Lactose and sucrose work as fermentable sources of carbohydrates, encouraging the growth of faecal coliforms and providing a way of differentiating them. EMB is used to isolate Escherichia coli.
MacConkey agar is to a differential as well as a selective medium designed to separate Gram-negative and enteric bacilli (usually found in the intestinal tract) bacteria. It differentiates them basing on lactose fermentation. The crystal violet together with the bile salts inhibits the growth of Gram-positive organisms consequently allowing isolation and selection Gram-negative bacteria. Since Gram-positive organisms do not grow on this medium, whenever bacteria colonies are growing, they are gram-negative. MacConkey together with Sorbitol is used to isolate E. coli O157.
MacConkey's Agar (2005): Differential & Selective Bacterial Growth Medium. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2015, from http://www.scienceprofonline.com/microbiology/macconkeys-agar-mac-differential-selective-bacterial-growth-medium.html
Respiratory tract infections . (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2015, from http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/respiratory-tract-infection/pages/introduction.aspx
Respiratory tract. (n.d.). Retrieved January 29, 2015, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Respiratory_tract
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