Standards And Regulations Research Paper Examples
Process Safety Management (PSM) Regulations and Standards Regarding Pipelines in the Oil Industry
The guidelines for the Process Safety Management (PSM) regulations and standards for highly hazardous chemicals being handled in the oil industry, including those that go through the pipelines, are outlined and published by OSHA and accessible through this link: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3133.html. Company XYZ should orient managers and employees with roles and responsibilities that encompass pipelines to be apprised of the “Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals-- Compliance Guidelines and Enforcement Procedures” published and accessible online through this link: https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1557. As revealed, both employer and employees have responsibilities in ensuring that policies and regulations are developed and consistent with the OSHA guidelines for consistency in implementation. Any violation to these guidelines, regulations, and standards would subject the employer to sanctions, according to the extent of the infractions made. Thus, the PSM contains information ranging from guidelines and requirements from employers, expected employee participation, assigned tasks of the Chief Security and Health Officer (CSHO), as well as manner of extensive dissemination to involved employees.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Regulations and Standards Regarding Pipelines in the Oil Industry
The regulations and standards developed by the ISO contained crucial information pertinent to pipelines in the petroleum and natural gas industry, as comprehensively contained in this link: https://www.iso.org/obp/ui/#iso:std:28195:en. Likewise, provisions and standards for metallic industrial piping, as well as non-metallic piping are stipulated therein. Information on general and design considerations for piping and buried piping are also provided. These information are crucial to enhance awareness of safety managers, as well as employees, on safety standards for pipelines installed, maintained, and monitored at Company XYZ. Therefore, inspectors must be cognizant of the standards to ensure that Company XYZ complies and adheres to the stipulated guidelines, as required.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Regulations and Standards Regarding Pipelines Inspection
Inspection and testing for pipelines are contained in the published guidelines of the The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (2002), specifically in Chapter VI: Inspection and Testing. There are qualifications of inspectors, type and extent of examination required, and repair of defects. Moreover, the testing guidelines included leak testing, qualification tests, and visual inspection, to name a few. Records and documentation of the inspection process conducted should also be appropriately filed .
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Regulations and Standards Regarding Pipelines in the Oil Industry
In a report, it was disclosed that the “American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – a not-for-profit organization that establishes requirements for U.S. standards setting organizations to enhance the global competitiveness of U.S. businesses – has reaccredited the American Petroleum Institute's standards program” . The re-accreditation affirms ANSI’s standards, including those that pertain to pipelines. As recognized, ANSI requires conformity to the following requirements: balance, openness, consensus, as well as due process . Likewise, the following standards that were advocated by ANSI are summarized according to significant dates, as shown below:
Source: Boss, Drake, Leewis, Selig, & Zurcher, 2004
Safety managers and employees at Company XYZ who work along pipelines and have responsibilities which include repairing, maintaining, inspecting, and regular monitoring should be made aware of these standards to abide by the stipulated guidelines.
Employees’ Awareness Level versus Management Understanding Level
Perception of Employees regarding Safety Standards
Employees at Company XYZ exhibited different levels of awareness on standards and guidelines pertinent to pipelines. At the onset, employees at entry level are provided with a one-day orientation on safety policies and procedures at Company XYZ. Likewise, a brief summary of the main points are provided to the employees in a compendium. However, as employees’ lengths of service become longer, the level of awareness to the safety standards apparently wane. As such, those who were noted to have responsibilities involving pipelines were not regularly apprised on standards of safety. The employees who had been working with Company XYZ for a long time seemed to have forgotten the safety standards communicated to them during the orientation phase. Likewise, no updates were provided to advise them on regulations and guidelines, especially with regards to inspecting pipelines and assuming a vigilant stance to prevent accidents that could potentially happen.
Perception of Management regarding Safety Standards
Managers’ levels of awareness on various standards for pipelines are greater and more updated. Safety managers are expected to be apprised of all the standards from various safety and health organizations. Apparently, the updating is duly documented in the company’s safety policies and procedures. New employees are updated with these standards; as such, most of the employees who had been with the company for less than 5 years are more aware of newly updated regulations and standards.
Boss, T., Drake, A., Leewis, K., Selig, B., & Zurcher, J. (2004, October 8). THE BENEFITS OF CONSENSUS STANDARDS – A PIPELINE CASE STUDY. Retrieved from ansi.org: http://publicaa.ansi.org/sites/apdl/Documents/Other%20Services/SBB/ASME%20Pipeline%20Case%20Study%20B31.8S.pdf
Bush, B. (2015). ANSI reaccredits API’s standards program. Retrieved from api.org: http://www.api.org/news-and-media/news/newsitems/2011/oct-2011/ansi-reaccredits-apis-standards-program
Erickson, J. (2011). Why Perception Surveys Are Conducted. Retrieved from Predictive Solutions: http://www.predictivesolutions.com/safetycary/perception-surveys-their-importance-and-role-in-safety-performance/
OSHA. (1992). Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals-- Compliance Guidelines and Enforcement Procedures. Retrieved from osha.gov: https://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=DIRECTIVES&p_id=1557
OSHA. (1994). Process Safety Management Guidelines for Compliance. Retrieved from osha.gov: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/osha3133.html
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers. (2002). Pipeline Transporatation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids. Retrieved from law.resource.org: https://law.resource.org/pub/us/cfr/ibr/002/asme.b31.4.2002.pdf