A Performance Evaluation Of Wind Energy Research Proposal Example
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Learning OutcomeStudents will be able to write a research proposal.ObjectivesThe objectives of the research proposal are to provide background information to your project explain your reasons for conducting your study and why it is important plan how you will collect evidence plan the kinds of outcomes you expect to address demonstrate organization and document design skills.This assignment will prepare you to identify a problem and explore or solve it.Tools and Resources Lester, (2009). Writing Research Papers: A Complete Guide. Blackboard Microsoft OfficeRequirements Cover Page Topic Purpose Focus Statement of Qualification (optional) Overview of Literature Review ScopeMethod Expectations BibliographyDetailsA. Write a cover page.
Wind power is a green energy source that people have used for hundreds of years. Windmills were used for many years to mill grain on farms and pump water (Hills, 1994, p. 118). The energy from the wind was transferred into mechanical energy by more than eight million windmills across America during the 1860s to 1900s (Chiras, 2010). Many of the windmills are still in operation moving water up from wells and requiring very little maintenance. Working windmills are a sign that there is something very significant about wind power. Modern, innovative designs for wind turbines take energy production to a totally new level of technology and the amount of energy production possible. The wind resource in the earth’s windiest regions is predicted to produce 13 times more electricity than the world produces now (Chiras 2010).
“Wind energy is derived from the uneven heating of the surface of the Earth due to more heat input at the equator with the accompanying transfer of water and thermal energy by evaporation and precipitation” (Nelson 2010). Therefore, wind energy, is a renewable or sustainable energy because it is produced by nature. Solar energy is also renewable or sustainable because solar insolation will be available as long as the sun shines (Nelson 2010). Renewable energy is produced mainly by hydroelectricity at 850 GigaWatts (GW) installed capacity in 2010
Figure 1 Reduction in costs for renewable energy from 1980 to 2008
In 2010 the wind power installed capacity reached over 158 GW and the installed capacity for solar power was over 23 GW (Nelson 2010). The reduction for the cost of wind power producing electricity from 1980 to 2008 was about 70₵/kWh.
Purpose of the Research
The purpose of the research is to evaluate the differences in costs and new technology for wind power compared to solar power for generating electricity. The focus of the research is from 2008 to 2015.
The energy capacity of wind to generate electricity is dependent upon the wind generated and upon the technology design of the wind turbines whereas, solar energy depends on the amount of insolation and the technology of photo voltaic cells. The cost of building both wind and solar energy systems decreased from 1980 to 2008, but what happened to the costs after 2008? The technology of both methods is improving as technology improves. The changes in costs and technology can make the wind and solar methods of generating similar, dissimilar or equal. The research proposes to learn which technology is the most efficient in reference to cost of installation 2015.
The capacity factor is significant for comparing traditional and renewable energy sources. Wind energy in a “good wind resource area” provides a range of capacity factors from 35 to 40 percent (Ackerman, 2012, p. 17). The installed capacity for wind energy grew from 1990s to 2010, but only in certain locations. Approximately forty four percent of the global capacity is in Europe, about 32 percent is located in the Asia Pacific, and about 22 percent is in North America (Ackerman, 2012).
Figure 2 Power curve for prediction of wind turbines instantaneous output (Woofenden, 2009, p 76).
Power curves are useful for predicting or measuring the power in Watts (W) that a range of wind speeds will be likely to produce. Figure 2 shows that at 8 miles per hour (mph) the wind turbine being assessed generates about 50 W and at 30 mph the amount generated is about 1200 W (Woofenden, 2009). Woofenden (2009) recommends that energy curves are more easily understood and more reliable for non-experts.
A challenge for wind turbine engineers that does not show up for solar cells is the problem of noise. Noise emissions create an obstacle to installing wind turbines in regions where people are concerned about noise problems. Noise reduction has progressed by design changes. The power curve is the most important technical design variable, but after that is the “sound power level” is second in importance (Hau & Hau, 2006 p. 617).
Stankovic and Campbell (2009) write that wind towers are becoming more acceptable in urban areas, where the usual rule of thumb was to keep wind turbines at a distance from homes. Now, similar to solar cells on roofs, wind turbines are set up on roofs showing that in some cases wind turbines are accepted (Stanovic & Campbell, 2009).
Scope of Research
The scope of the research is to assess the costs compared to efficient energy production between wind energy and solar energy. The performance of wind turbines from 2008 to 2015 will be evaluated. The databases used are the Renewable Energy Map that is online and can be searched by the type of technology, topic or country; the electricity data of the net generation of energy of renewable sources from the US Energy Information Administration. Finally, the Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment offers data from around the world about resources and energy production globally.
Excel is the tool that will be used to organize relevant data and then, to conduct statistical analysis. The capability of calculating information about data from simple equations to more complicated statistical analysis is the reason for using Excel.
The results are expected to show if wind energy is being used to generate more electricity than solar energy. In 2008, wind energy was generating about seven times more energy than solar energy (Nelson, 2013). The improvements that have been made in wind turbine technology that caused the ratio to stay the same or to change are going to be identified. The results will reflect the performance abilities of the latest technology for wind power.
Ackermann, T. (2012). Wind power in power systems (2nd Ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Burton, T. (2011). Wind energy handbook (2nd Ed.). Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley.
Chiras, D., & Sagrillo, M. (2010). Wind power basics. Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society.
Hau, E., & Hau, E. (2006). Wind turbines fundamentals, technologies, application, and economics. (2nd [English] ed.). Berlin: Springer.
Hills, R. (1994). Power from wind: A history of windmill technology. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press.
Manwell, J., & McGowan, J. (2002). Wind energy explained: Theory, design and application. Chichester: Wiley.
Nelson, V. (2013). Wind energy: Renewable energy and the environment, (Second Ed.).
Schaffarczyk, Alois, and Gunther Roth. Understanding wind power technology : theory, deployment and optimisation. Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: Wiley, 2014. Print.
Stankovic, S., & Campbell, N. (2009). Urban wind energy. London: Earthscan.
Woofenden, I. (2009). Wind power for dummies. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley Pub.
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