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1. The Industrial Revolution(IR) was a period of sustained technological innovations and expansion in manufacturing processes in Europe from 1760 to about 1840.
Why IR began in Great Britain
IR emerged due to various reasons. Among them, it emerged because of the rapid population growth from 1500-1800. Interestingly, during this period, the global population grew seven times than the previous 300 years (Jones 241).
Effects of IR
IR had both beneficial and dismal effects in Britain. Positively, it remarkably transformed business and commerce in Britain by contributing to the emergence of towns and urban centers. As well, it facilitated the efficient production of goods through less cost of labor; however, it contributed to the loss of jobs by the replacement of human labor (Jones 69).
2. Conservatism is the principle of preserving cultural and traditional values in the midst of modernity. It springs from the desire to conserve something and resist change to timeless traditions (Sargent 137).
Liberalism is a general tendency to accept and promote the use of human rationality to effect change in the social system (Sargent 311). It emphasizes the need to preserve and promote human freedom.
Socialism is an economic and political ideology. Technically, it is the notion that the society as a unit should have authority over the means of production and distribution at all levels (Sargent 122).
Communism is a socioeconomic system that emphasizes communal ownership of the means of production. As such, it eliminates the social classes, state, money as well as economic, social and political ideas that may support the formation of social classes. It is the final stage of Marxian theory of history (Sargent 310). Marxist communism combines an autocratic political system with a socialist economic system(Sargent 306).
Nationalism is the ideology of love for one’s country coupled with demands for action (Sargent 312).3. The prominent leaders and their contributions in the Germany and Italy Unification.
Otto von Bismarck represented German while Cavour and Garibaldi represented Italy. Bismarck forged solid military alliances with Italy. The end of the cold war instituted the formation of the Common Foreign Currency (CFSP), which became the second pillar in 1991 Maastricht Treaty(Katzenstein 130).4. Imperialism
Imperialism is the idea of extending a nation’s power, control and influence whether through diplomatic or military measures.
Reasons for European nations’ engagement in Imperialism.
The additional European territories provided the impetus for Europe to engage in imperialism. As well, European countries engaged in imperialism to grow economically and avert national rivalries. Still, others felt they had the moral authority to rule the neighboring countries (Jones 108).
Nations, which were successful in imperialism
Belgium, Britain, Italy, Germany, and France are among the countries that successfully implemented imperialism (Jones 286).5. Major long-term and immediate factors that contributed to World War I. Militarism, nationalism, imperialism and mutual alliances among the warring countries contributed significantly to the onset of WW1(Sargent 204).6. The business cycle - refers to the changes in the GDP and economic activities of a country within a particular period (Jones 98).
Keynesian economics is the idea that aggregate expenditure can influence economic productivity especially during periods of recession(Sargent 186).
The Law of Supply and Demand states that the demand for goods is inversely proportionate to the price of commodities while the law of supply states that supply of products is directly proportionate to the market price(Jones 46).
Economies of scale are the cost advantages obtained from large-scale production by spreading the fixed costs over many units (Katzenstein 25).
7. Treaty of Versailles as a solution to World War I.
The Treaty of Versailles was a practical solution to the cessation of WW1. Thus, it promoted peace and eventual economic and political stability of the warring countries.
The effectiveness of the Treaty of Versailles in making a safer and more peaceful world
The Treaty of Versailles made the world safer and peaceful by ending the war and promoting international peace.
Provisions of the Treaty of Versailles that upset the Germans
The provisions that specially upset Germany were four. Firstly, Germany had to accept liability for initiating the war. Secondly, Germany had to surrender its acquired colonies to France and Britain. Thirdly, Germany had to pay close to seven million pounds in terms of reparations for damage caused to the rival countries. Fourthly, she was forbidden from placing soldiers in the Rhineland. As well, she was denied to have an air force (Office of The Historian).
8. Causes of the Great Depression of the 1930s
One of the major causes of the Great Depression was the crash of the stock market in 1929.
How were the United States, Germany, and the other European countries affected? Most banks closed during the Great Depression. In addition, people lost their savings and pensions to the companies that provided them. The Wall Street fell and most investors withdrew (Sargent 110). 9. How Hitler dealt with Germany’s economic difficulties in the 1930s
Hitler addressed German’s economic difficulties by advocating for National Socialism. In principle, this ideology emphasized extreme nationalism, authoritarian political system and racism(Sargent 312)
Possible reasons for Hitler’s harsh treatment of the German Jews Hitler acted harshly against the German Jews because he believed that only the pure German race t-otherwise called the Nordic, or Aryan was the superior race and the strongest. Thus, he considered the German Jews an impure race(Sargent 233).10. The long-term and immediate causes of World War II in Europe and Asia According to Katzenstein, one of the long-term causes of WW2 was that Britain was responding to the threats of Germany, USA, and Japan in challenging its world hegemony. As well, it emerged since the upcoming superpowers wanted to defeat particular political ideologies such as fascism and communism(Katzenstein 3).On the other hand, the Asian countries such as China and Japan joined in the world war rot fight American control over them. Eventually, out of six countries, only Russia and China managed to escape American imperium(Katzenstein 5).
11. Cold War
Cold War was a period of intense military and political tension after the Second World War
When and why Cold War happened
The cold war occurred after the end of World War II. The primary impetus for cold war was the need of the countries to assert their preferred political and economic ideologies (Katzenstein 127)
How “Containment” and the Marshall Plan influenced Cold War
Containment and the Marshall plan influenced the development of the cold war since it sought to inhibit the spread of communism in Africa, China, Korea and Europe (Katzenstein 3).
How Stalin, Khrushchev, Brezhnev, and Gorbachev affected the Cold War
Stalin had tense relations with the West after the cold war. He was instrumental in the worsening of the war between 1946-1991. Gorbachev brought a cessation of the cold war by introducing perestroika and glasnost in the USSR. The former means restructuring while the latter means openness. Nikita Khrushchev had a diplomatic approach to the colds war. For instance, in 1959 he toured the USA as part of his peaceful coexistence policy on the cold war. Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev was a hard-liner in the cold war but towards his death, he met President Richard Nixon. From then on, the Soviet Union relations with the USA got better. The cold war took place between 1947 to 1991 (Office of The Historian).
Why the Cold War ended
The cold war ended because of the loosening of Soviet Union and communist ideologies towards the closing of the 20 the century(Office of The Historian). 12. The development of the State of Israel, beginning with the Dreyfus case in 1890s France.
The French court incarcerated Dreyfus in the Devils cell on the grounds of treason in 1894. However, he was eventually regenerated from the charges and reinstated in 1906 (Encyclopedia of World Biography).
Problems that have arisen from the Dreyfus case.
This incidence brought sharp divisions in France. The collaborationist Vichy government, individually instigated institutionalized anti-Semitism. They forced the Jews to put on yellow Stars of David. In addition, they banned them from many professions and denounced them in different propaganda. In addition, they seized their property, and eventually deported them to the death camps(Bell par. 15).
one of the possible solutions is to devise mechanisms and programs for reconciling the factions.
What makes the problem difficult to contain
The formation of the state of Israel enthused many young French Jews with Zionist ideas. As a result, they questioned whether their assimilation of French norms had caused them to given up their identities(Bell par. 20).
How Dreyfus case outcomes are presently affecting American politics
Anti-Semitism has significantly affected US relations with France.13. Discuss the history of China since the outbreak of its civil war in the 1920s through today. The civil wars were a result of on and off conflict between CCP and the Nationalist Party since the 1920’s (Office of The Historian).
Why Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists lost the mainland to Mao Zedong and the Communists.
Jiang Jieshi and the Nationalists lost the mainland to Mao Zedong and the Communists because they failed to support Zeong’s new policy of People’s Republic of China (PRC).
What programs did Mao institute after he took power
Mao introduced the democratic political policies in China. Typically, the announcement ended the full-scale civil war between the Nationalist Party and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), which broke out immediately after World War II(Office of The Historian).
The changes that Deng Xiaoping instituted
Deng Xiaoping served as the chair of the CPMC, that is, the Communist Party Military Commission. Xiaoping initiated novel economic reforms in China during the 1980s. For instance, he opened up China to the international community. As a result, many Chinese received formal education in the modern technology from overseas(Deng Xiaoping Biography).
The possible international philosophy of President Xi Jinping
President Xi Jinping’s global philosophy seems to be one of international unification and corporation.
14. Presidential and Parliamentary governmental systems,
The presidential system is a form of governance in which the executive leader is the president whereas the parliamentary structure the leader is the prime minister. As well, in the presidential system, the leader is elected by the people while the prime minister is elected by the legislative council(Sargent 64).
The advantages and disadvantages of each. Thus, the president tends to represent the views of the people and can subvert the decisions of the legislature if he feels they undermine the public will. On the other hand, the prime minister represents the ideas of the legislative council (Sargent 64).
15. Comparison of the Liberal (by today’s definition) and Conservative positions on economics and the role of government. Modern liberalism is a political ideology that emphasizes the need for individual freedom. In principle, it limits the role of the government in affecting human liberties and rights(Sargent 143). Conservative ideology preserves the control of the means of production and distribution of goods and service as the preserve of the government (Sargent 136).16. Guerrilla warfare
Guerrilla warfare is viewed differently by different people. For instance, according to Mao Zedong’s theory, guerilla warfare is an organizational weapon(Sargent 196). It is a form of combat involving a group of fighters who use militant strategies to fight their rivals. Some strategies include raids. Hit and run, and sabotage. As well, they can ally themselves with a significant military strategists and combatants(Katzenstein 223).
The wars and military actions after World War II constituting guerrilla wars
The Chinese civil war, the Vietnam War, the Korean War and other military confrontations in the formation of Malaysia are good examples of the guerilla wars(Katzenstein 223).
Why fighting a guerrilla war is difficult for democracies
Fighting guerilla wars is difficult for democracies because it requires people to form alliances with the foreigners. Achieving solid civil will for democracies in engaging in the guerilla wars is an uphill task. Democracies must overcome both the political and tactical challenges of the war(Sargent 21).
Bell, David A. Trapped by History: France and Its Jews 2009. World Affairs. Web 22 Aug. 2015.
Deng Xiaoping Biography. Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2015 Web 22 April 2015.
Jones, Eric. The European miracle: environments, economies and geopolitics in the history of Europe and Asia. Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Katzenstein, Peter J. A world of regions: Asia and Europe in the American Imperium. Cornell University Press, 2005.
Office of the Historian. n.d. Web 22 Apr. 2015
Sargent, Lyman. Contemporary political ideologies: a comparative analysis. Cengage Learning, 2008.
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