Ebola Virus Plan For Medical Facilities Essay Examples

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Viruses, Nursing, Medicine, Ebola Virus, Patient, Health, Disease, Vaccination

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2021/02/07

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 The Ebola virus outbreak of Western Africa is often in the news. Ebola virus is a member of the filoviruses, a negative-stranded RNA virus that causes bleeding both inside and outside of the body. The Ebola virus was originally identified during two outbreaks in Africa in 1976. Ebola virus is named for the Ebola River, where it was first identified in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Africa, and can kill as many as 90% of those who become infected. Ebola virus causes a hemorrhagic fever that damages the immune system and organs. Upon the early stages of infection (within two to twenty-one days), Ebola virus can result in high fever, headache, joint and muscle aches, sore throat, weakness, stomach cramps and a loss of appetite [1]. Since these are also confused with the symptoms of other prominent tropical diseases, such as malaria, typhoid fever or cholera, it is often not clear whether somebody is coming down with the symptoms of Ebola virus. Later on during infection Ebola causes damage to the immune system and organs. Eventually it causes levels of blood-clotting cells to drop precipitously, leading to severe, uncontrollable bleeding. Bleeding can take place from the eyes, ears and nose, as well as internally, resulting in bloody vomit and diarrhea. Less contagious than the influenza virus, Ebola can be transmitted from person to person through direct skin contact or contact with the infected person’s bodily fluids. Ebola virus can be transmitted when an infected person is exhibiting a high fever or any of the other symptoms described above. Ebola is not transmitted through the atmosphere or through food. People who have tended a sick person, touched contaminated needles or surfaces surrounding a sick person, or buried someone who died from the disease can be susceptible to Ebola infection. Ebola can also be transmitted by specific infected animals, such as bats and monkeys [1]. 

Diagnosis and Treatment 

Patients who are suspected of being exposed to Ebola virus can be tested for potential infection by a blood screen. This can involve taking a blood sample from the patient and testing for the presence of viral protein by virus isolation, ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay) or viral RNA by RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction). If the patient has been infected very recently, it may take a few days for enough of a viral load to accumulate in the body in order to determine whether the diagnostic test is positive[2].
It is highly recommended that everyone refrain from traveling to areas of West Africa where Ebola has been recently isolated, including Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia [3]. While there is no current cure for Ebola or vaccine available to prevent its spread, a number of steps can be taken to treat the patient and ensure the best odds of survival. The first step involves isolation of the patient from the general population. A patient must be provided with a continuous supply of electrolytes and fluids, as they lose a considerable amount  through sweat, vomit and diarrhea. Oxygen and blood pressure medication must be administered to maintain the comfort of the patient. A clinic must be prepared to administer multiple blood transfusions to replace blood that is lost and to provide platelets to enable clotting to take place and reduce the amount of bleeding. Recovery from Ebola depends on the strength of the immune response of the patient and how effective supportive care is. While all of these represent a standard of care that is available at any Westernized hospitals, this is not necessarily so for makeshift clinics in rural West Africa, and a significant number of lives have been lost because of the sparcity of medical facilities and supplies.  
Health care workers who treat symptomatic Ebola patients can prevent contamination by wearing personal protective clothing and equipment  including surgical masks, gloves, goggles, impenetrable surgical garments and aprons as well as rubber boots [4]. It is imperative that no skin be exposed to the virus or any aerosols that come from the patient ]that potentially harbour the Ebola virus. Mucous membranes surrounding the eyes, nose and mouth are particularly vulnerable to virus transmission. The patient should be placed in a single hospital room with a private bathroom. Doors must be kept closed at all times and only specified personnel should be allowed to enter the room. The hospital room should be equipped to deal with any form of airborne infection. The facilities should monitor all who enter and exit a patient's room and this should be maintained in a log. A l material and medical supplies used should be disinfected or disposed of in appropriate puncture-proof, sealed containers. All blood tests should be kept to an absolute minimum.  
All environmental surfaces must be cleaned following any medical procedure that involves the patient. Spillage of all bodily fluids, soiled sheets, and proper disposal of medical wastes such as needles must be dealt with appropriately. Soap, water, chlorine or bleach solution, garbage bags, disposable towels are all required materials for cleaning and disinfecting both equipment, wealls and floors of the medical facility. Hospital staff must wash hands frequently before putting on and removing personal protective equipment. Precautions should be taken on a case-by-case basis, taking into account the presence of symptoms or the date that the last symptoms were observed. Costs can be kept down through the use of common low cost supplies, such as soap and water, bleach, surgical gloves, etc. (World Health Organization) All waste should be disposed of by burning [3-6]
If a healthcare worker is exposed to the virus, they must immediately stop working, wash the affected skin surfaces with soap and water, and contact the occupational health supervisor for assessment and medical evaluation. They will have to be tested for the presence of virus and comply by an exclusion from work until they are deemed no longer infectious (approximately 21 days after time of exposure).
 

Conclusions

As of November, 2014, Ebola virus has cost the economy of West Africa approximately 32 billion $US, infected 14, 413 and killed 5,177 [3]. It is imperative that these strategies and procedures are carried out to prevent transmission of Ebola virus.

References

WebMD Medical Reference http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/ebola-fever-virus-infection?page=2 
Centers for Disease Control; http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/diagnosis/index.html 
World Health organization http://apps.who.int/ebola/
Sagripanti JL, Rom AM, Holland LE. Persistence in darkness of virulent alphaviruses, Ebola virus, and Lassa virus deposited on solid surfaces. Arch Virol 2010; 155:2035-2039. 
Sagripanti JL, Lytle DC. Sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation of Lassa, vaccinia, and Ebola viruses dried on surfaces. Arch Virol 2011; 156:489–494. 
Infection control for viral haemorrhagic fevers in the African Health care setting 
http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/ebola/whoemcesr982sec1-4.pdf
World Bank: Cost of Ebola could be 32 billion. Kottasova, I. CNN Thursday Oct 9, 2014. http://www.cnn.com/2014/09/24/business/ebola-cost-warning/

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WePapers. (2021, February, 07) Ebola Virus Plan For Medical Facilities Essay Examples. Retrieved September 22, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/ebola-virus-plan-for-medical-facilities-essay-examples/
"Ebola Virus Plan For Medical Facilities Essay Examples." WePapers, 07 Feb. 2021, https://www.wepapers.com/samples/ebola-virus-plan-for-medical-facilities-essay-examples/. Accessed 22 September 2021.
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"Ebola Virus Plan For Medical Facilities Essay Examples," Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com, 07-Feb-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/ebola-virus-plan-for-medical-facilities-essay-examples/. [Accessed: 22-Sep-2021].
Ebola Virus Plan For Medical Facilities Essay Examples. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/ebola-virus-plan-for-medical-facilities-essay-examples/. Published Feb 07, 2021. Accessed September 22, 2021.
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