Example OF Essay On Race And Biology
Concept of Race and its scientific validity
Race is a social group with its own key identities guided by its cultural values, possessing a key trait. Races are further divided into two types: biological race and social race. A social race can be defined is group of people who have same biological basis defined by cultural arbitrary manner, and biological race is defined as a geographically isolated subdivision of spices.
Concept of race is different in different cultures. For example, in Brazil, Race is defined by Socio-economic status whereas, in India, race is defined by parents and family tree.
Race term was first used in English language in 1580 when people are starting classifying other people based on their observable differences. Race is derived from the French word Rasse that means descent, birth, origin, stock or family. Earliest views on race go as old as Egyptians as when the lighter ones were in power they used to call dark Egyptians as “the evil race of Ish.”
Early classification of race goes back to Johann Friedrich Blumenbach who in his second book classified human beings in four different categories, classifying Americans as red race; Ethiopians as the black race; Mongolians as the yellow race; Caucasians as the white race and Malaysians as brown race.
Modern debate on race
Humans are categorized in race Homo sapiens, and some anthropologists claim that race is a sub spice of Homo sapiens, but the study of Jonathan Marks claims that most of the racial differences between human beings are
Many social scientists now use word ethnicity instead of race because even when the DNA patterns of two social groups weren’t same, they still were matching each other and even two samples of different races resembled each other. Craig Venter states: “race is a social concept; it is not a scientific one. There are no bright lines, and when we try to paint science on these social differences, it all falls apart.”
Basically, it is human nature to arrange things. It is human nature to classify things, on basics of what depends purely on culture.
It should be noticed that DNA differs from one racial group to another, but it should also be noticed that they do not differ that much to classify races. Races have proved to be based upon social and cultural differences. Back in times of slavery of African race the term race rose to its peak as the scientist and scholars legitimized the folk ideas about racism. The scholarly writers trying to prove that the Negro were different and Americans are the greatest race, Doctor Samuel Morton in1830's provided evidence through cranial collection from population that the negro had smaller brain than the whites and Indians in-betweens.
Concept of race is truly in the eyes of the beholder. Statement by American Anthropological Association also indicates that traits do not depend on race. Variation of skin color is dependent on region of one’s origin. Race is derived from people’s desire to classify human beings; it is purely social construct not biological. A society can perceive anything; maybe we will be having a different race for fat people in coming days. .
American Anthropological Association. (1994). AAA Statement on Race and Intelligence. Washington: American Anthropological Association.
Bliss, C. (2012). Race Decoded: The Genomic Fight for Social Justice. Stanford: Stanford University Pres.
Blumen bach, j. f. (1865). On the natural varieties of mankind: De generis human varietal nativa.germany: Bergman publishers.
Kottak, C. P. (2012). cultural Anthropology. Michigan: McGraw-Hill Education.
Sternberg, R. J. (2007). is a biology a race. New Scientist, 40-45.
Understanding Race. (2011, December 4). History of the human race. Retrieved from Understanding Race organization: http://www.understandingrace.org/history/index.html