Example Of Healthcare Systems: - Authoritative Sources Essay
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A health care system entails an organization of people, resources, or institutions that deliver health care services to targeted populations. Because health care needs are diverse, nations must design such systems considering the needs and available resources. Research in this field has sought to uncover faults or success within the health care systems with the ultimate goal of delivering quality care to consumers. It has achieved this by helping to identify weaknesses in the current system while comparing with other care systems that have been successful. By so doing, it provides empirical information that helps in redesigning existing health care models. Perhaps different researchers have explored health care systems. While many of the studies are lacking, some are authoritative. This paper discusses four authoritative sources in the field of health care systems. They include Cline and Haynes, (2001); WHO, (2015); Schoen, et al., (2005), and Journad et al., (2010). These resources are authoritative because the researchers are reputable, the findings are published in leading journals, and the content is objective and significant. The author of this report will examine each of the four articles to show why they are authoritative.
Cline, W.J., Haynes, M.K. (2001). Consumer Health Information Seeking on the
Internet: The State of Art. Health Education Research, 16(6), 671-692.
The main message that the author is conveying is that an increasing number of consumers are seeking health information via the Internet. In the article, the author affirms that professionals in health care should consider the potential benefits and quality concerns of online health information. Perhaps this research is of much importance because it shows that over 50 million consumers go online to obtain health information (Cline & Haynes, 2001). This has potential consequences for the health care system. The author further argues that while the Internet offers limitless access to health information, access is limited and hindered by navigational challenges. He makes explicit statements that in order to improve efficiency in the health care systems; efforts should be directed at improving access and quality of online health information (Cline & Haynes, 2001). I find this study relevant because the information published online often influences health beliefs and behaviors, medical outcomes, and health care system as a whole
Journad, I., Andre, C., Nic, C. (2010). Health Care Systems: Efficiency and Institutions, OECD Economics Department, Working Papers No 769. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/health-care-systems_5kmfp51f5f9t-en
This study presents various indicators for assessing the performance of a health care system. Through the study, the author is conveying information about comparative data on health care policies and institutions for OECD countries while uncovering strengths and weaknesses in the health care system for each country (Journad, 2010). The author is communicating to policymakers and other concerned individuals for improving health care system. Apart from that, I find another important aspect of this study. They argue that increasing the coherence of policy setting through best policy practices and borrowing appropriate elements from other health care systems helps to raise efficiency (Journad, 2010).
It is an authoritative resource because it has reputable scholars who have adequate background information on policy issues. These authors are affiliated with OECD France. Isabella Journad is a senior economist at OECD Economics Department and has numerous publications in her name. Christophe Andre is a French Psychologist working at Hospital Sainte Anne. He was a teacher at University Paris-Quest in the department of clinical psychology. However, he resigned and joined OECD Economics Department to concentrate on research in health care matters. The OECD has members around the world including in Australia, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom and many other countries.
Schoen, C., Osborn, R., Huynh, P.T., Doty, M., Zapert, K., Peugh, J., & Davis, K. (2005).Taking the Pulse of Health Care Systems: Experience of Patients with health problems in six countries. Health Affairs, 509-25. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16269444
The resource is authoritative on its survey of sick adults in Canada, Germany, New Zealand, Australia, the UK, and the US. Through the study, the author shows that a significant number of patients in the studied countries report of poor care coordination, and safety risks (Schoen, 2005). An interesting aspect of this study is that many people perceive these countries as leaders in health care because of their developed status. However, evidence shows that they all have challenges with their health care system. These concerns include poor patient safety resulting from medical and medication errors, poor chronic care management, and patient-centered care, as well as a lack of proper insurance and delivery systems (Schoen, 2005).
This article is abstracted in leading journals and Journal of Health Affairs, in particular. Health Affairs is a leading peer-reviewed health care journal established in 1981 (Health Affairs, 2015). Alan Well, editor in chief is described as “the bible of health policy” (Health Affairs, 2015). Health Affairs explores current health policy issues in the domestic and global sphere. It mission is to serve as a leading non-partisan forum that promotes discussion and analysis of improving health care (Health Affairs, 2015).
The funder for this research is the Commonwealth Fund. As a private-based foundation, it aims to promote high-performing health care systems for better access, greater efficiency, and quality (The Commonwealth Fund, 2015). This foundation is active in fields related to health care along with health policy. It has distinguished experts and leaders representing every health care sector (The Commonwealth Fund, 2015). As a funder, the Commonwealth Fund is non-partisan and aims for objectivity. This source is authoritative because it is published by the Commonwealth Fund as well as on the National Institute of Health website. If it were not reputable and authoritative, it would not be published on that website. Even so, the statistic mentioned before about the NIH is worth repeating. They have 300,000 research personnel at 2500 universities including 6000 scientists.
WHO. (2015). Health Systems. Retrieved on March 10, 2015 from http://www.who.int/topics/health_systems/en/
This resource offers comprehensive information on health care systems. As outlined in the resource, the World Health Organization (WHO) indicates that a good healthcare system delivers quality services to all persons in a timely manner (WHO, 2015). Perhaps a valuable aspect of this resource concerns its inclusion of important information about the key aspects of a functional health system and factsheets on health systems. Readers can also access technical information related to health care systems. This information includes “health information, health systems workforce, medicines, service delivery, and safety, as well as national health policies” (WHO, 2015). Overall, it contains virtually all information about health care systems (WHO, 2015).
The creator and administrator of the website is the World Health Organization. It is a reputable organization, with operations across the world. The WHO has leading medical researchers for presenting objective and authoritative information. This resource stands out because the WHO sets or establishes standards and guideless for medical practice, including the way health care systems should operate. Therefore, it acts as a reference point to all other resources. The WHO has collaborated with leading organization. These partners, along with other sponsors around the world ensure that it achieves its objectives. The WHO has been around since just after World War II (in 1948), its constitution has been agreed to by more than sixty countries around the world and the they are part of the United Nations. As such, they are a very legitimate and upstanding organization that would stand superior to the vast majority of other sources and organizations due to its size and status (WHO, 2015).
Just like any other field, research in health care systems raises a number of ethical issues. Destruction of health care infrastructure leads to a loss of processes and structures, which would otherwise protect patients or the vulnerable (Hill, 2004). Conflict may also arise in the between funding organizations and researcher regarding the objectivity or the study findings. In addition, the position of a health care system researcher in relations to the health care system under analysis and the sponsors of the research may raise some ethical issues.
Cline, W.J., Haynes, M.K. (2001). Consumer Health Information Seeking on the Internet: The State of Art. Health Education Research, 16(6), 671-692.
Health Affairs. (2015). About Health Affairs, Retrieved on March 10, 2015 from http://www.healthaffairs.org/
Hill, P. (2004). Ethics and Health Systems Research in Post-Conflict Situations. Dev World Bioethics, 4(2), 139-53.
Journad, I., Andre, C., Nic, C. (2010). Health Care Systems: Efficiency and Institutions, OECD Economics Department, Working Papers No 769.
Schoen, C., Osborn, R., Huynh, P.T., Doty, M., Zapert, K., Peugh, J., & Davis, K. (2005).Taking the Pulse of Health Care Systems: Experience of Patients with health problems in six countries. Health Affairs, 509-25.
The Commonwealth Fund. (2015). Commonwealth Fund- Health Policy, Health Reform, Retrieved on March 10, 2015 from http://www.commonwealthfund.org/
WHO. (2015). Health Systems, Retrieved on March 10, 2015 from http://www.who.int/topics/health_systems/en/
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