Example Of Research Paper On Computer Trends And Technology On Network For Wireless Sensor Security And Attack Defense Approach
The extreme limitations and demand for the installation setting of wireless communication network for sensor enables safety of wireless systems extra difficult as compared to traditional networks. Nevertheless, a number of features portrayed by networks for sensors can assist in tackling the difficulties of setting up protected networks. The exceptional features of this type of network might possibly permit fresh defenses that do not exist within the traditional networks. A network for wireless sensors consists of several minute and low-priced sensor nodes having many different features. It has extremely less power for processing alongside radio ranges, allowing extremely low energy use within the node sensors. It also carries out restricted and particular sensing as well as checking functions (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
The design of security protocols of unguided network for sensors is also difficult due to some special features: First is that the channels for wireless can be accessed by anyone and consists of radio on interface made at similar band of frequency. As a result anyone can check or contribute in communication within the channel hence offering suitable means of attackers to access the network. Second is that the majority of wireless network protocols fails to take in to an account the essential security methods at the design stage. The protocols are also known publicly because of requirements for standardization. Third is that the limited resources at the nodes of sensor network makes it extremely hard for implementation of robust safety algorithms because of their sophistication. Moreover, most sensor nodes present the requirement for easy, modifiable and sizeable safety protocols. Forth is that a robust safety protocols is expensive in terms of resources within the nodes resulting to performance compromise for applications, implying that some kind of tradeoffs should be conducted amid performance and safety in most circumstances. Last but not least, the installation of network for wireless sensor is done within the regions of hostility with no permanent infrastructure. In addition, carrying out continuous observation or close watch after network installation is hard. It is thus easy for attackers to launch an attack following these reasons by exploiting safety holes within the protocols (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
The work results of the research
The results of this research touch on security challenges in unguided network infrastructure for sensors with respect to data confidentiality, data authenticity, data integrity, data freshness and availability. It also touches the security treats and attacks as well as related works and security solutions in network for wireless sensor.
Confidentiality of data
It appears that there is no confidentiality in the network for wireless sensors because of a number of challenges. First, the radio frequency range is an available communication resource which anybody having radio transceivers can use. The attacker can thus carry out eavesdropping by altering conveyed packets provided he can continuously monitor radio channels employed in communication. The attacker can dig into anode using special tools with an aim of finding valuable data (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
Wireless channels also appear to be unstable resulting to inherent errors during the process of transmission. Since electronic devices used are also imperfect at times, the inaccuracies can as well emerge at every forwarding node because of errors. The imperfection of these devices with electronic components are normally witnessed when weather parameters such as temperature or humidity goes out of standard range. The problem is the difficulty in detecting these errors by the conveying node. Consequently, the error packets can end up being transmitted, resulting to problems at downstream nodes (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
Authenticity of data
It also appears that there is no an assurance of the identities of nodes that communicates given that an attacker is in a position to directly inject packets in case he/she is aware of the format for data packets that are defined within the protocol stack of the network. The injected packets act as a means of transmitting false information which can be decoded at the receiving node. The protocols for message routing can also fail because of false routing information. The installed applications within this network infrustructure such as environmental monitoring system can also be disrupted by this fake information (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
Freshness of data
The data packets received by anode is not always fresh given that the short-term condition of objects are illustrated or explained by the information, meaning that the data is only valid or suitable for use within a restricted interval of time. Failure to assure the node concerning the freshness of the data packet will imply that a packet of data is of no value since the conveyed information within the packet is not legitimate in that case. The packet replay is also a big danger to the needs of freshness within communication network. In this case, the cyber criminal can interrupt or cut off data packet and then replay it into the network after holding the data packet for a given time period. This compromises freshness of data packets transmitted. The outdated information within the packets can also bring about several harms for the installed applications within the network for wireless sensor (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
Availability is that assurance of the capability of providing anticipated services as intended in advance. Lack of network availability can be experienced when there is no power for the operation of nodes. The nodes can lack power in the case of over transmission and reception of messages or because of too much of computation. This can also happen when an attacker decides to jam communication with an aim of making sensors unavailable. Therefore, security needs impacts both network operation and maintenance of network availability. Any network problem can emerge due to ruin of network functionality thereby compromising network availability.
Security threats in network for wireless sensor
The considerable threats in network for wireless sensor include physical tampering, power drainage as well as immediate extinction after installation due to deliberate attempt to subvert anode by means of security breaching or due to hostile environment. The threats can also be classified into seven categories namely node malfunction, passive collection of information, traffic analysis, service denial, introduction of false node, node outage and message corruption. They can also be categorized into outside as opposed to inside attacks, inactive as opposed to active and Mote class against attacks of laptop class (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
Attacks in networks for wireless sensor
It also appears that networks with unguided mediums are extra susceptible to safety attack as compared to wired networks. This is the transmit behavior for the medium of transmission. The attacks are brought about by either one or several susceptibilities at various layers within the network. In addition, networks for wireless sensor have extra vulnerability given that nodes are normally located in hostile environment where there is no physical security (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
The attacks can be categorized into, fabrication, alteration, interception and interruption. Interruption involves availability attack on the physical network such node capture, corruption of message being transmitted, malicious code insertion and many others. Interception involves an confidentiality attack on the network. Alteration, also called modification is where an illegal party getting the right of entry into the network as well as tampering it by means of altering the conveyed packets of data. It also involves causing service denial attack like flooding the wireless network counterfeit data. Fabrication on the other hand refers to authentication attack whereby the adversary injects counterfeit facts or information as well as compromising reliability of conveyed information. A number of critical attacks are also categorized as attack on service denial, Sybil attack, sinkhole attack, hello flood attack and wormhole attack (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
Security solutions in wireless networks for sensors
The majority of the available security approaches need intensive computation and memory. Several security approaches need repeated transmission amid sensor nodes. The security solutions have unfortunately received little attention despite much research that has centered on making networks for wireless sensor to be feasible and useful. Some the accepted security solutions include security protocol for sensor networks (SPIN), TINYSEC and localized encryption and authentication protocol (LEAP). SPIN consists of sensor network encryption protocol (SNEP) and µTESLA where by SNEP offers data confidentiality, two party data authentication as well as data freshness. µTESLA on the other hand offers authenticated broadcast for extremely resource restricted surrounding (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
TINYSEC offers the same services like SNEP. In addition it offers authentication, integrity of message and replay security. Tinysec offers the essential features of message authentication and integrity by means of MAC, message confidentiality via encryption, semantic security and protection replay. It supports two distinct security options namely Tinysec-AE and Tinysec-Auth, that is, authenticated encryption and authentication only respectively (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
LEAP also offers essential security services such as confidentiality and authentication. Moreover, it also meets a number of security and performance needs that are potentially extra difficult for the network of sensors. In addition, it supports the establishment of individual key to be shared with the vase station, pairwise key to be shared with a different sensor node, a cluster key to be shared with several neighboring nodes and a group key shared by every node in the network. In addition, LEAP uses efficient protocol for inter node local broadcast authentication depending on the employment of one way key. This key sharing in general offers source authentication (Shio Singh and Dharmendra 2011).
Summary and conclusion
The results of this research can be summarized in to three main areas: security issues in networks for wireless sensors, security threats and attacks and finally security solutions to wireless networks. The security issues comprises of confidentiality, data authenticity, data integrity, data freshness and availability. The security attacks include interception (attack on confidentiality,, interruption( attack on availability), modification( data corruption through access by the illegal party) and fabrication which involves authentication. The possible security solutions against these challenges, threats and attacks in networks for wireless sensor include SPINS, TINYSEC and LEAP with SNEP and µTESLA being the categories of SPIN. TINYSEC supports two different security choices namely authentication encryption and authentication only abbreviated as Tinysec-AE and Tinysec-auth respectively. The inadequacy in data confidentiality, lack of reliable data integrity, lack of data authenticity, compromise on data freshness and high probability of experiencing lack of network availability are all clear indications that networks for wireless sensor still calls for improved security design even as computer technology continues to advance.
This paper describes computer trends and technology within the context of network for wireless sensor security and attack defense. The description dwells much on network security and possible solutions to the challenges faced. This is because security has become the main challenge for energy restricted network for wireless sensor due to the broad security serious applications of network for wireless sensor. The most important features of network for wireless sensor make it extremely difficult to design a robust safety protocols. The paper has introduces a number of safety challenges, threats and attacks in networks for wireless sensor in addition to different solutions. The network security of network for wireless sensors is still an extremely successful research course to be investigated further in prospect.
Shio Kumar Singh, M.P. Singh, and Dharmendra.K. Singh, “A survey of Energy-Efficient Hierarchical Cluster-based Routing in Network for wireless sensors”, International Journal of Advanced Networking and Application (IJANA), Sept.–Oct. 2010, vol. 02, issue 02, pp. 570–580.
Shio Kumar Singh, M.P. Singh, and Dharmendra.K. Singh, “A Survey on Network Security and Attack Defense Mechanism For Network for wireless sensors”, International Journal of Trends and Technology in computing, 2011, vol. 02, issue 02, pp. 570–580.
Bibliographic Information for reference authors
Shio Kumar Singh is a holder of bachelor’s degree in Electrical and Electronics Engineering. He also holds M.Sc (Engg.) in power electronics from Regional Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, India. He is also the head of maintenance Engineering Department of Electrical at Tata Steel Limited. He is also a holder of Post Graduate Diploma (Executive) in International Business from Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi, India. He also has much industrial experience in design, development, implementation including marketing and sales of Information Technology, Electrical and Electronics maintenance, Automation and Telecommunication solutions, process improvement initiatives, Training and Development in an illustrious career for several years. He has published several papers in national and international journals which he has presented in many seminars. He is also an author of many books for Engineering like Database Management Systems, industrial instrumentation and control as well as Process Control Systems. He has also been conferred the Eminent Engineer and outstanding Engineer Awards by the Institution of Engineers in India following his contribution in the field of Engineering and computer science. He is a chartered Engineers and a fellow member of The Institute of Engineers in India.
Dr. M. P. Singh is an assistant professor in computer science department and Engineering at National Institute of Technology Patna, Bihar, India. He has over five years of experience and has authored several papers published in national and international journals. His main area of research interest is on Network for wireless sensor and mobile computing as well.
Dr. Dharmendra K Singh has more than 20 years of experience in teaching. He heads the department of Electronics and Communications and Information Technology as from the year 2002. He is very active on IT. He has also published several papers in journal and conferences. He works in the area of research of coding theory, cryptography, Optical Amplifiers, Photonic Crystal Fibers, e-Governance and Educational planning.
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