Type of paper: Report

Topic: Population, Beak, Island, Charles Darwin, Size, Increase, Life, Hypothesis

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2020/12/04

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Look at the plots of average beak size over time. What do you observe? Do you notice any trends in beak size? Click on the Population button and look at the plots of population numbers over time. What changes do you see? Do the two islands differ? Does the data support or refute your

On Darwin Island, the total number of finches is about 30.
They have shallow beaks suitable for cracking soft seeds.
Half of them have lost their lives possibly because the type of seeds does not suite their beaks.
Very few finches can survive on Darwin Island.
On Wallace Island, the total population of finches is about 80.
Finches have deep and strong beaks.
Finches survive in bigger numbers on Wallace island possibly because they can ably crack the hard seeds on the using the deep beaks.

The population of finches on Wallace Island gradually decreases.

The very few finches do lose their lives on this Island.
The two islands differ because Darwin finches have shallow beaks and Wallace finches have deep beaks.
The data on the graphs supports my hypothesis for I can measure the variables and predict the outcomes on both Islands.

On Darwin Island, finches have shallow beaks, which are contrary to Wallace Island, the finches have deeper beaks.

What happened to beak size on Darwin Island compared to Wallace Island over time? Is this what you expected? Why or why not?
Overtime, the population of finches on Darwin Island with deep beaks keep rising unlike on the Wallace Island where the population of finches with deeper beaks is constant.
Yes, i expected this outcome because if the seeds are hard, then finches on Darwin Island are likely to find it hard to crack them. This maybe one reason for their short life span.
On Wallace Island, if seeds are hard, then finches are able to use their deep beaks to crack hard them. This explains their long life span on the Island.
Did you notice any trends in the distributions of beak size?

Yes the observations are clear.

What did you observe?
Overtime, the number of finches with deep beaks will go up an average of 20 finches in 100 years.
Did you notice any trends in population number?

Yes

What did you observe?
The population of finches will increase.
Explain your answers.
The increase in population of finches will occur as a result of increase in precipitation leading to growth of soft seeds suitable for finches to crack.
What changes did you observe in beak size and population numbers? Do these results confirm or refute your hypothesis? If necessary, reformulate your hypothesis and test this hypothesis.
Finches with shallow beaks will decrease overtime. The results confirm my hypothesis because of the gradual rise in the number of finches with deep beaks predicted in 100 years.
Did you notice any differences between precipitation, changes in beak size, and population numbers for the finches on Wallace Island compared with those on Darwin Island? Explain your answers.
There exist apparent differences on Darwin island. There is little precipitation on Darwin Island than on Wallace and the finches on Darwin Island have shallow beaks compared to those on Wallace Island.
The fact that there is much precipitation on Wallace island, it facilitates growth of soft seeds which are suitable for finches and this leads to their increase in population on the Island.

What did you observe?

Both Islands have different results.
After you have observed the data for this experiment, rerun this experiment. Look at the output results in the Beak Size and Population views. Do you notice any differences in this rerun compared with the previous run?

There happens to be a silent difference

Are the general trends observed in this run the same as the previous run?
Silently different.
Explain your answers.
It is the difference in the variables used to run the experiment.
Run and rerun each experiment for 100, 200, and 300 years. Perform another experiment to test your hypothesis by increasing precipitation on Wallace Island to 50 cm/year and increasing beak size to 28 mm. Run an experiment for 300 years and describe your results. Do these results support your hypothesis?

Yes, the results support my hypothesis.

Were the effects on each island the same or different?
The effects on each island were different.
What did you observe?
Where there is much precipiatation, soft seeds normally grow and this makes it easier for finches to get what to fed on.

Were these the results you expected?

Yes,
Explain your answers to justify what is happening to finches on each island.
Finches on Darwin Island have shallow beaks and they have a short life span. However, they tend to change their nature to suite with the environment.

Yet finches on Wallace Island have deep beaks and have a long life span.

Be sure to provide explanations for any differences in beak size and population numbers that you observed when comparing finches on both islands.

Assignment 2

1.
a.
Look at the plot of beak size over time. What type of selection is taking place on Wallace Island? On Darwin Island? Explain your answer.
There is a fast increased rate in the average beak size on Darwin’s curve where as a slow rate increase on Wallace’s. This is because of the rapid rise as shown on Darwin’s curve in relation to the beak size and increase in years, the more the years the more the rise in the average beak size where as for Wallace’s curve, it’s a slow rise in the average beak size. Therefore, both curves show a rising rate in the average beak size in relation to the years though Darwin’s curve increases faster than Wallace’s curve
b. Using the numbers from the field notes, calculate the average R (the difference in mean beak size from one generation to the next) in the first ten years of the simulation and the last ten years for both populations.
Darwin beak mean=12.512, mean difference=-1.159
Wallace beak mean=12.047, mean difference=-1.117
The average beak mean for the Darwinian population was 12.512 and the mean difference within the beak means of the Darwinian Finches was -1.159.The negative value of the difference in the beak means in the Darwinian population obtained by backward differencing was an indication that the means kept on increasing from year to year.
Similarly Wallace’s Finch population had a beak mean of 12.047.The average difference between the beaks means of Wallace’s population was -1.117.This reported mean difference was an indication that these beak means were also increasingly becoming longer from year to year just like the trend observed in the Darwinian Finch population. In this analysis, the procedure used in obtaining the beak differences involved subtracting the current beak mean from the beak mean that was reported in the previous year.
c. Look at the plot of finch population over time. Explain the reason for any differences in population numbers between the two islands.
The Darwinian Finch population is unstable over the years.it shows huge divergences from the mean population year to year. However although this population is unstable and shows huge variations from year to year, a superimposed line of best fit indicates that the Finch population is drastically increasing from year to year. It Darwinian population reports its minimum levels in the years between 1990 and 2040 but does not show any signs of reducing in the subsequent years.
Similarly Wallace’s Finch population was shows a similar level of instability just like the Darwinian. However the level of instability that it depicts seems less than that observed in the Darwinian population. A superimposed line graph in Wallace’s population indicts that this population is increasing but at a lesser rate because the gradient of this super imposed line is less than that for the Darwinian population. Further analysis of the data reveals that the two populations will be at equilibrium in around 2190.And after achieving this level, Wallace’ Finch population will tend to slow down in its increase yet that of Darwin will continue growing at a sustained rate.

Assignment 3

Did you notice anything odd? (If not, try again until you do). Propose a hypothesis to explain this result. Leaving the rainfall and beak sizes alone, what parameters would you change to prevent this? What parameter would you change to increase the likelihood of this happening? What type of selection is happening during the first several years of this experiment? If these birds were capable of assortative mating, what might happen on one island?
The graph show that the average beak size of the Darwinian Finches was generally increasing between 1990 and 2040.However from 2040, these mean beak sizes seemed to be decreasing at relatively lower rate. However from 2090, there was a slight increase in the mean beak size of the Darwinian Finches though the rate was too small. However for the year 2190, the Darwinian mean Beak sizes show a very steep decline in their sizes and this is sustained through to 2290.
However a different scenario is reported by Wallace’s Finch population. This population showed a stable rate of the average beak means between years 1990 and 2140.From the year 2140, the average beak means of these Finches showed an increase in size although this increase was relatively small.
This was in direct contrast to the scenario observed in the Darwinian Finches i.e. AS the Darwinian Finches were decreasing, the Finches in Wallace’s were registering an increase. If at all the Finches were allowed to interbreed, another size of the beak means would be obtained that would be intermediate.

Assignment 4:

Did you notice anything odd? (If not, try again until you do). Propose a hypothesis to explain this result. Leaving the rainfall and beak sizes alone, what parameters would you change to prevent this? What parameter would you change to increase the likelihood of this happening? What type of selection is happening during the first several years of this experiment? If these birds were capable of assortative mating, what might happen on one island?
Yes, I realized something odd. At a finch population of 500 and the year 2140-2240, there is an intersection or collision of the curves. This happens because Wallace’s curve shoots up high rapidly from 0 and then stalls at 500 taking on a steady horizontal motion where as Darwin’s curve raises slowly but steadily vertically. This is because on Wallace’s curve there is a quick growth, which stalls at full maturity where as for Darwin, there is a slow growth and an intersection takes place before full maturity.
I would ensure the birds have the same conditions of growth beginning at the same level to prevent this from happening where as to allow it to happen again I would have both birds on Darwin’s n Wallace’s curve start developing at different growth stages.

Work cited

Shelley Deaus. (June 2000). "Evolution of a metabolic pathway for degradation of a toxic xenobiotic: the patchwork approach". Trends in Biochemical Sciences (Cambridge, MA: Cell Press) 25 (6): 261–265. doi:10.1016/S0968-0004(00)01562-0. ISSN 0968-0004. PMID 10838562.
Carina Mary.; Strap, Janice Luis. (October 2013). "The recent evolution of pentachlorophenol (PCP)-4-monooxygenase (PcpB) and associated pathways for bacterial degradation of PCP". Biodegradation (Dordrecht, the Netherlands: Springer Netherlands) 18 (5): 525–539. doi:10.1007/s10532-006-9090-6. ISSN 0923-9820. PMID 17123025.
Mark Joel.; Matzke, Nicholas J. (October 2006). "From The Origin of Species to the origin of bacterial flagella". Nature Reviews Microbiology (PDF) (London: Nature Publishing Group) 4 (10): 784–790. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1493. ISSN 1740-1526. PMID 16953248. Retrieved 2014-12-25.
Clements, Abigail; Bursac, Dejan; Gatsos, Xenia et al. (September 15, 2009). "The reducible complexity of a mitochondrial molecular machine". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences) 106 (37): 15791–15795. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10615791C. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908264106. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 2747197. PMID 19717453.

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WePapers. (2020, December, 04) Free Hypothesis? Report Sample. Retrieved October 16, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/free-hypothesis-report-sample/
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Free Hypothesis? Report Sample. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/free-hypothesis-report-sample/. Published Dec 04, 2020. Accessed October 16, 2021.
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