Free Literature Review About Concrete Material In Terms Of Sustainability
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Concrete is a material that is architecturally attractive and environmentally friendly (bio-positive), which meets all the requirements of sustainable construction. Construction of concrete are often considered as the most energy efficient, allowing for the entire life of the buildings to save energy for heating, ventilation, lighting and air-conditioning of facilities and thus reduce CO2 emissions into the environment. Concrete structure of the building, combined with natural ventilation facilities are the most suitable materials for the creation of a favorable climate indoors. In many office buildings of modern materials, according to experts, there are health problems in the staff working there, called syndrome of unhealthy buildings, bringing annual loss of 600 million pounds due to the loss of working time. Favorable indoor climate improves staff productivity by 6 - 16 percent (Meyer, 2009).
Speaking of the other virtues of concrete in relation to the environment, it should be noted that its components are the least scarce and places of their obtaining may be quite easily remediated. Being almost inert, concrete is the ideal environment for the use of multiple waste and secondary processed products, which would otherwise fill dumps and landfills (ashes, recycled concrete structures, polystyrene scrap, etc.). Production of concrete and its delivery to the place of its use is also very energy efficient compared to other building materials. In the US, for example, about 60 percent of the concrete is produced within 180 km from the place of use (metal and wood transported for a few hundred or even thousands of kilometers) (Oikonomou, 2005). The only power-consuming components of the concrete mix - cement, - occupies only 10 to 15 percent of its volume and often from 20 to 70 percent of the energy for its production is obtained from alternative sources (burning tires, wood pallets, disposable tableware and other combustible wastes) (Corinaldesi and Moriconi, 2009).
Universally available, tech and inexpensive material – concrete – can be met nowadays in most of the urban areas. Moreover, in the nearest future, apparently, concrete will have the same role in the surrounding buildings and structures, not only on Earth, but in the outer space. According to scientists, the moon has all the basic components of concrete - sand and water. The same components are sought by the new European and American missions to Mars. Committee on the lunar concrete has long been established as part of the American Concrete Institute (Chen, Okudan and Riley, 2010).
Over, the strength and durability of concrete is confirmed by buildings of ancient Rome and the current towers and bridges of record highs. In terms of aesthetics, there is already firmly established in the world the term architectural concrete. Expressive forms, the highest quality of surfaces, harmonious palette of colors - the formula for its success. Concrete is a material, offered to people by nature and serving to protect them for centuries. Its judicious application paves the way for environmentally safe future of subsequent generations on Earth.
Chen, Y., Okudan, G. E., & Riley, D. R. (2010). Sustainable performance criteria for construction method selection in concrete buildings. Automation in construction, 19(2), 235-244.
Corinaldesi, V., & Moriconi, G. (2009). Influence of mineral additions on the performance of 100% recycled aggregate concrete. Construction and Building Materials, 23(8), 2869-2876.
Meyer, C. (2009). The greening of the concrete industry. Cement and Concrete Composites, 31(8), 601-605.
Oikonomou, N. D. (2005). Recycled concrete aggregates. Cement and concrete composites, 27(2), 315-318.
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