Sociological Theories Of Marx, Weber And Durkheim Essay

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Sociology, Society, Karl Marx, Socialism, Theory, Reforms, People, Max Weber

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2021/01/29

Over the years many philosophers and social analyst attempts to explain the premise and phenomenon that affects human society. Sociological theories are formulated in pursuit of trying to understand how society operates and what factors influenced how society is shaped. Numerous personalities have contributed their insights on matters concerning society. Among them are Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emil Durkheim. This paper offers an analysis of the different sociological theories postulated by these renowned social philosophers. The goal of this paper is to foster an understanding of the principles that were at play in their contentions and arguments hoping to shed some light on the valuable contribution of their insights to the development of today’s society.

The Conflict Theory and Karl Marx

Karl Marx is a philosopher, but for many, he is known as a revolutionary communist whose main agenda is to foster social reforms through economic modification and enlightenment. Marx belong to the well-to-do class, and as such he was open to the realities that exist as brought by the imbalance in the socio-economic stature of the society. Popular for his Conflict Theory, Marx proposed that coercion and power plays an important role in fostering social order. Marx observed that society is classified based on social groups who are vying for the same economic and social resources. However, the process by which people amass or acquire these resources is significantly dictated by number. Number that does not primarily depend on the volume but rather on the extent of the group’s influence. Marx proposed that consensus plays a significant role in establishing social order. The consensus usually have the greater control and power over much of the most important aspects in the society like the government, the economy and the distribution of resource. Anyone who falls outside of the continuum are placed at a greater disadvantage of being disproportionately addressed or acknowledge.
Marx mentioned the role of cultural hegemony which is creating the imbalance. Unlike the functionalist, Marx deemed it necessary to foster reform and social change to address the issue. Marx believed that until the social system is restructured the cycle of injustice will one happen again. Marx even proposed that social reform is necessary even to the extent of calling for social revolution. Marx believe that as long as the concept of hegemony prevails nothing can be done to overdo the system. The ruling class will always hold greater power and this power will be used to manipulate the system to favor those in power.

The Functionalist Theory and Emile Durkheim

Contrary to Karl Marx’s ideology, Emile Durkheim sees that to establish social order reforms are unnecessary. Instead, Durkheim suggests that what the society needs is to maintain the status quo. Durkheim furthered that is reforms and modifications are instituted this would only lead to confusion. This confusion will eventually trigger social unrest and in order to pacify the outrage and the chaos, the only solution is to revert back to the old system. By virtue of simply analogy, Durkheim supposed that if going back to the initial order will be what is necessary to ease the chaos, then there is no need to enforce any reform that would only disrupt the system.
The functionalist theory as proposed by Durkheim sees each member of the society based on their respective contributions to creating social order. Durkheim rationalized that if change is initiated in one of these parts, a domino effect will be felt by the entire system. Trying to visualize Durkheim’s principle one could see society according to their contribution towards development. For example, politicians are geared towards running the government. Workers are positioned to perform the roles of being the producers and the manufacturers that would deliver goods for public consumption. Farmers are task to toil the land and produce bounty harvest. Law enforcers are tasked to maintain peace and order. However, if one attempts to change this order chaos will take place. If farmers are given the role to hold public office to replace the politicians because they are believed to abuse their power, there will be an imbalance because farmers does not have the expertise and the experience to run a nation. More so, a politician who will be required to take the place of a farmer will not also be as effective considering that a politician may not know the techniques in farming. While all these happens, the two groups who were displaced of their proper function are not the only one affected but rather everyone within the society. With politicians working in farms, output or production can be significantly affected. People will have less food on the table. In the same way, a farmer who is tasked to govern may not know how to manage the people when social unrest begins thereby inflicting chaos in the society. Given this argument, Durkheim suggest that instead of reform social accountability is necessary.

Max Weber and the Theory of Methodological Antipositivism,

The theory of methodological antipositivism suggest that everything in the society can be understood based on understanding its purpose and meaning rather than postulating different explanation that details its origin or impact. Weber suggests that the reason why social order is not establish and facilitated because people failed to the reason why certain things—i.e., social order is necessary. Social order allows people to function effectively without having to contemplate or be bothered by the situation that may arise because of an imbalance. Weber supports that problems would naturally occur because of the dynamism of human interaction. Nevertheless, people should stop trivializing over the events that happen. Instead of capitalizing in offering ways on how to understand and explain the events, Weber suggests that people simply look within

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Sociological Theories Of Marx, Weber And Durkheim Essay. Free Essay Examples - Published Jan 29, 2021. Accessed March 03, 2024.

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