What Characterizes Childhood In France, The USA (According To The Critic) How Is It Constructed?* Essay Example

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Culture, America, United States, Family, Workplace, Children, Society, Women

Pages: 2

Words: 550

Published: 2020/12/05

Raymonde Carroll. Cultural Misunderstandings.

Question 1.

Answers
In America, childhood is characterized by too much freedom. The children behavior is not restricted as is the case with the French children. The French have the perception that the American children lack manners, are spoilt, indiscipline, impolite and have no reserve. On the other hand, the American counterparts believe that the French children are quiet due to their upbringing. They argue that the freedom of the children is restricted (Raymonde, 45). The behavior of the children is constructed through their upbringing. What is considered as disrespectful in France is considered freedom in America.

What characterizes adolescence in France, the USA (according to the critic) (how is it constructed?)

The French adolescents are characterized by freedom in that they want to do what they what. This is brought about by the need to have their prize of their long time apprenticeship. The adolescents want to have a good time. On the other hand, the American adolescents are restricted. Their parents want to know what they are up to at any moment of their adolescent lives. The American adolescents insist more on the exterior signs of independence (Raymonde, 52).
How can we criticize Raymonde Carroll when she considers the relationships between parents and children in the USA and France? What are the weak points of her arguments in your opinion?
Raymonde Carroll’s arguments can be criticized from the viewpoint that she generalizes the parents of from both the American section and the French parents. The weak points of her arguments are that she only makes her views based on the stories and the interviews that she made.
Margaret Oertig-Davidson. Beyond Chocolate. Understanding Swiss Culture.

Question 2

What is different from one country (Switzerland) to the next (USA) when someone moves in the neighborhood?
Answers
The difference between the neighborhoods in Switzerland and the USA is that in Switzerland, when a new person moves into a new neighborhood, the neighbors expect them to introduce themselves (Margaret, 68). In the United States, when one moves to a new neighborhood, it is the neighbors who take the initiative and welcome them.
What are the different factors that may change interpersonal relationships between Swiss people and foreigners? In other words, Margaret Oertig-Davidson is careful to find examples where interpersonal relationships between Swiss people and foreigners do not correspond to the stereotypes.  
The different factors that may change interpersonal relationships between the Swiss people and the foreigners include the culture of the individuals living in the neighborhood and their age. Some Swiss people who have lived abroad often have a laid back approach and invite people to their homes. On the other hand, in if the neighbors are young, they may invite one for a drink (Margaret, 70).
Which paradigm could be used to explain the box "That's not your job" p. 72.
The paradigm that could be used to explain “that is not your job” is that in Switzerland, it is expected that every individual work in a field that they have specialized in. it is even illegal to work in a field that one has not specialized in.

Which space is open to guests (during a party) in Swiss culture, North American culture and your own culture?

In Switzerland, the space that is open to guests is the assistance that one can get from the guests. In America, the guests are free to the party so long as they have been invited. In our culture, everyone is welcomed so long as he or she bring something to the host of the party especially wine.

Historical Construction of Gender Roles"

Question 3.
Know the meanings of misogyny and patriarchy
Answers
Misogyny is an ideology that functions or is a belief system that one thinks that the society is dominated by the male gender for very long periods of time. On the other hand, patriarchy is an ideology whereby the male gender of the society dominates or holds the power in terms of political leadership and moral authority.
The myths that devalue women include; religious doctrines that valued women as of lesser individuals in the society. Misandry and celibacy also devalued women.

What is the legacy of evolution theory?

The legacy of the evolution theory is that it brought to light the need for survival. The manner in which women were treated changed over a period of time as the women chose the individuals who could provide for their families.
What is the consequence of the 2 sex model of anatomy (this model became popular in the 18th century) when considering males and women?
The consequence of the two-sex model is that it became a solid foundation for the comprehension of the differences between the men and the women and created a cultural division between the spirit and the body.
The historical pérégrinations of the concept of 'Culture by Zygmunt Bauman

Question 4.

What are the conclusions of John Goldthorpe's multinational sociologist team?
Answers

The conclusions of John Goldthorpe's multinational sociologist team include omnivorousness, ostentatious denial of snobbery, instant spent and no satisfaction.

What are the consequences of describing the elite as culturally omnivorous in your opinion?
The consequences of describing the elite as culturally omnivorous in my opinion are that it is biased and that everyone has the opportunity to be omnivorous.

What, according to Bourdieu, did culture enable the elite to do? (4) How is culture to be considered in Bourdieu's Distinction? (11)

According to Bourdieu, culture enabled the elite to convert their capital to economic capital and convert any other forms of capital. Culture is to be considered in Bourdieu's Distinction through the upbringing of an individual.
During the 18th century, what did Le siècle des lumières / the Enlightenment / Aufklärung aim to achieve in terms of culture? Whose mission was it?
During the 18th century, Le siècle des lumières / the Enlightenment / Aufklärung aimed to achieve in terms of culture the challenging of authority and the reformation of the society with toleration. The mission belonged to the philosophers.

How did the enlightenment spread and with which consequences?

The enlightenment spread through the abandonment of religious contexts, and the consequences were immense.
What is the drastic change that took place with liquid modernity (=postmodernity) when considering culture according to Bauman?
The drastic change that took place with liquid modernity (=postmodernity) when considering culture according to Bauman is that modernity was now viewed as a permanent struggle, and all the sources of uncertainty had to be conquered.
Bauman writes:" 'Dissolving everything that is solid' has been the innate and defining characteristic of the modern form of life from the outset" and he adds, "but today, unlike yesterday, the dissolved forms are not to be replaced, and nor are they replaced by other solid forms" (11). Page 13, he says we have entered a post-paradigm era. Which paradigms can you think about? (see our syllabus) How do you react to the idea of our living in a post-paradigm era, in an era where nothing is solid, in an era where you cannot cling to anything? Does this reasoning apply to all parts of the world? Check as well what he has to say pp.15-16.
One lives in a society where there is no need to cling to the past as there are always things to think of in the present. All these reasons apply to all parts of the world.

Questions and reflections on Bryman's "The Disneyization of Society"

Question 5.
When in a country different from yours (Paris), will you run to themed restaurants? Why do you do so?
Answers

When in a country different from yours (Paris), an individual will run to themed restaurants because of the experience.

Be familiar with the definition of "dedifferentiation of consumption”.
"Dedifferentiation of consumption" are terms that are used to refer to the general trend whereby the general forms of consumption that are associated with the institutional spheres are interlocked with each other. • What does the commodification of culture entail?
Commodification of culture is whereby the culture of a certain society is used for business purposes. Introduction of Adorno (note to self).

What does the commodification of culture entail?

Questions and reflections on Ritzer's "McJobs"
Have you ever held a McJob? What do McJobs entail when considering the job one does, how one does it, what one learns or does not learn, how one interacts with the clients?
I have never held a McJob. When one holds a McJob, one is responsible for the service that is offered to the clients. One learns through some basic training, and one is thus taught how to provide the service to clients.
Ritzer writes "McDonaldization has brought the customer into the labor process: the customer is the laborer". Any examples you can think of? How does ICT reinforce this idea in your opinion?
A good example is the instance whereby the customers have to make orders for themselves. ICT reinforces this idea when the orders are placed at the point of sale systems.
What does Marxian theory say about exploitation when considering McDonaldization? Who used to be exploited (and still is)? Who is exploited now in a McDonaldized system? Why does it work so well and why does not it raise any protest on the part of the exploited?

What does Marxian theory say about exploitation when considering McDonaldization?

When considering McDonaldization individuals who work at McDonalds are the ones exploited. The employees used to be exploited and are still being exploited. In a McDonaldized system, it is the employees who are still being exploited.this process works well as the employees are afraid of getting sacked.
Remember what we talk about when discussing Michel de Certeau's "End of the Week". How does consuming in La Croix-Rousse's shops differ from doing so in a McDonaldized world? How does consumption differ?
In a Michel de Certeau's shop, there is a personalized service for every individual. Every customer is treated differently.

Who are the most affected by a McDonaldized world? How does that contradict Bauman's post-paradigm world?

The individuals who are mostly affected are the employees and the customers. Bauman’s post paradigm as the employees are supposed to be assisted by that shift.

Michel de Certeau's "the end of the week",

Question 6.
What is the philosopher's objective, following the wanderings of the R's and the tirades of Madame Marie against living in housing projects? In order to make this text more clear, I would advise you to go on Google Maps and type "Lyon Croix-Rousse"; you will then slightly zoom out so that you can see the Presqu'île and the two Streets he mentions, Rue de la République and rue du Président Edouard Herriot. Then you will understand what it means to walk down from La Croix-Rousse to downtown, how the R's walk differently getting to their destination and walking back up  from it after doing what they intended to do etc What de Certeau wants you to understand in how you navigate different spaces according to where you are, how you consume differently and interact with people differently in different spaces whether you do your shopping in your own neighborhood (if this is possible) or in a supermarket, or in a mall.
Answers
The philosopher's objective, is for the individual to differentiate between the different illustrations of space and the actual place. What one can navigate so as to reach the intended destination.

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