Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Cancer, Breast Cancer, Medicine, Women, Health, Risk, Treatment, England

Pages: 1

Words: 275

Published: 2020/12/18

INTRODUCTION

Breast cancer is the leading type of cancer seen in women these days (Who.int, 2015). In 2012, an estimated 1.7 million new cases were registered worldwide. The highest rate of breast cancer was seen in females of Belgium.the highest numbers of survivors for five years post diagnosis are seen in North America and Europe. (Wcrf.org, 2015)
INCIDENCE: Age incidence: higher is the age, higher the chances of developing breast cancer (Cancerresearchuk.org).

RISK FACTORS

AGE: As mentioned earlier, increasing age increases the risk of breast cancer.
FAMILY HISTORY: Positive family history increases the chances manifold
GENETICS: In some cases the occurrence of breast cancer is seen in the heredity.
RADIATION: Exposure of the face or chest to radiations for treatment of any other cancer or other diseases increases the proneness to develop breast cancer.

RACE: White women are more susceptible to develop breast cancer.

OBESITY: Increase in weight or BMI proportionally increases breast cancer risk.
REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH: Nulliparous and elderly primigravida have higher chances.
MENSTRUAL HISTORY: Early menarche and late menopause are liable to make the patient prone to breast cancer.
HRT: Hormone replacement therapy taken by patients for any other condition makes them prone to the disease.
ALCOHOL AND SMOKING: Women consuming alcohol and those who smoke are found to have higher incidences of breast cancer
SEDENTARY LIFESTYLES: Lack of physical activity make women more prone to breast cancer (Breastcancer. Org, 2015).

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

Damage to DNA or any genetic mutation can lead to breast cancer.
Abnormal exposure to estrogen also predisposes to cancer.
Defects in genes BRCA1, BRCA2 & P53 can lead to cancer occurrence due to transfer in the heredity (Mandal, 2013).
STAGES
STAGE 0: No tumor
STAGE 1: Tumor is of 2 centimeters, no lymph node involved
STAGE 2: Tumor is of 2-5 centimeters, lymph node of the axilla of the same side.
STAGE 3: Tumor is of 2 inches, lymph node of axilla involved, along with the lymph nodes of the surrounding areas of breast.
STAGE 4: Cancer has spread to distant organs of the body (Cancercentre.com, 2015).

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Dimpling of the breast skin
Enlargement of one breast
Nipple retraction
Discharge from nipples
Enlarged lymph nodes
Visible veins on breast
Pain and tenderness (Krans and Cafasso, 2015)
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
Mammogram
Ultrasound
Biopsy
TREATMENT
Radiotherapy
Chemotherapy
Hormonal therapy
Surgery: Total or partial mastectomy
Biological or targeted therapy (Nhs.uk, 2015)
PROGNOSIS
5 year survival rate is an indicative of good prognosis

According to American Cancer Society, at stage 0 & 1 5 year survival rate is almost 100%.

At stage 2 the survival rate is 93%
At stage 3 it is 72%
At stage 4 it is as low as 22% (Cancer.org, 2015)
PREVENTION
Decrease alcohol intake
Maintain a healthy weight
Breast feed the infant
Avoid exposure to radiation
Avoid smoking (Mayoclinic. org, 2015)
CONCLUSION
Cancer is still a conundrum to medical science
There are many forms, and multiple causes that manifest in varying degrees in millions of different people
Modem medicine continues to pursue the needed research necessary to make cancer less of a threat among human populations
For the women predispose or fearful of developing cancer it is necessary to participate in their own healthcare, follow-through regular proactive, visit their doctors, take the steps necessary to lower the chances of breast cancer and take immediate treatment when any suspicious symptoms are recognized
Cancer has the most positive prognosis when it is identified, addressed and treated as early as possible

REFERENCES

Breastcancer.org,. (2015). Breast Cancer Risk Factors. Retrieved 13 March 2015, from http://www.breastcancer.org/risk/factors
Cancer.org,. (2015). Breast cancer survival rates by stage. Retrieved 13 March 2015, from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-survival-by-stage
Cancercenter.com,. (2015). Breast Cancer Stages: What are the Stages? | CTCA. Retrieved 13 March 2015, from http://www.cancercenter.com/breast-cancer/stages/
Cancerresearchuk.org,. (2015). Breast cancer incidence statistics : Cancer Research UK. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerstats/types/breast/incidence/uk-breast-cancer-incidence-statistics
Krans, B., & Cafasso, J. (2015). Warning Signs of Breast Cancer. Healthline. Retrieved 13 March 2015, from http://www.healthline.com/health/breast-cancer/warning-signs#Overview1
MANDAL, A. (2013). Breast Cancer Pathophysiology. News Medical. Retrieved from http://www.news-medical.net/health/Breast-Cancer-Pathophysiology.aspx
Mayoclinic.org,. (2015). Breast cancer prevention: How to reduce your risk - Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 13 March 2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-living/womens-health/in-depth/breast-cancer-prevention/art-20044676
Nhs.uk,. (2015). Breast cancer (female) - Treatment - NHS Choices. Retrieved 13 March 2015, from http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Cancer-of-the-breast-female/Pages/Treatment.aspx
Wcrf.org,. (2015). Breast cancer statistics | World Cancer Research Fund International. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from http://www.wcrf.org/int/cancer-facts-figures/data-specific-cancers/breast-cancer-statistics
Who.int,. (2015). WHO | Breast cancer: prevention and control. Retrieved 13 March 2015, from http://www.who.int/cancer/detection/breastcancer/en/
www.nationalbreastcancer.org,. (2015). Breast Cancer Diagnosis :: The National Breast Cancer Foundation. Retrieved 13 March 2015, from http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/breast-cancer-diagnosis

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WePapers. (2020, December, 18) Breast Cancer Essay Examples. Retrieved March 09, 2021, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/breast-cancer-essay-examples/
"Breast Cancer Essay Examples." WePapers, 18 Dec. 2020, https://www.wepapers.com/samples/breast-cancer-essay-examples/. Accessed 09 March 2021.
WePapers. 2020. Breast Cancer Essay Examples., viewed March 09 2021, <https://www.wepapers.com/samples/breast-cancer-essay-examples/>
WePapers. Breast Cancer Essay Examples. [Internet]. December 2020. [Accessed March 09, 2021]. Available from: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/breast-cancer-essay-examples/
"Breast Cancer Essay Examples." WePapers, Dec 18, 2020. Accessed March 09, 2021. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/breast-cancer-essay-examples/
WePapers. 2020. "Breast Cancer Essay Examples." Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. Retrieved March 09, 2021. (https://www.wepapers.com/samples/breast-cancer-essay-examples/).
"Breast Cancer Essay Examples," Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com, 18-Dec-2020. [Online]. Available: https://www.wepapers.com/samples/breast-cancer-essay-examples/. [Accessed: 09-Mar-2021].
Breast Cancer Essay Examples. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/breast-cancer-essay-examples/. Published Dec 18, 2020. Accessed March 09, 2021.
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