Diabetes In America Literature Reviews Examples
<Name and Section # of course>
Diabetes is called diabetes mellitus by the physicians who are the combination of metabolic illnesses that develop when the blood glucose level of an individual is elevated. The rise in blood sugar concentration can be due to the insufficient production of the hormone insulin or the irresponsive behavior of the cells of the body towards the insulin. On the other hand, diabetes can be caused due to both reasons as well (Kaul et al., 2013). Patients who suffer from diabetes becomes the victim of polyuria in which urination is more frequent than normal. Moreover, the patients will tend to be more thirsty due to the condition polydipsia and more hungry than usual which is called as the polyphagia. Diabetes prevails for longer duration of time once commenced. The diabetes can be type1 diabetes or type2 diabetes. The type 1 diabetes is caused due to the absence of insulin production. This type is rare, and only 10% of the total diabetic patients suffer from type 1 diabetes. On the contrary, most of the people are affected by type 2 diabetes comprising of the remaining 90% of the diabetic patients (Brahmkshatriya e al., 2012). In this type, the insulin is produced in inadequate quantity or the cells of the body are not able to react to insulin in order to extract the glucose from the blood which can be broken down to liberate energy. During pregnancy, the insulin cannot cope up with the blood sugars which get high due to intake of more diet. Hence, the gestation diabetes is developed in the second trimester and gets cures after the birth of the baby. Besides, frequent urination, hunger and thirst, the patient suffering from diabetes may face weight gain or loss, bruises which do not heal, fatigue, tingling and numbness in hands and feet.
The significance of diabetes is due to the reason that many diseases are associated with diabetes and diabetes can give other diseases a chance to get on set in an individual. Cardiovascular diseases are the major risk to get developed in a diabetic patient. Therefore, blood cholesterol and pressure are always checked. Furthermore, smoking can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases so, the diabetic patient needs to avoid smoking and maintain the blood sugar level. Since, hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia can affect if there is misbalance maintenance of the blood glucose level. The significance of diabetes in America is more concerned because the estimate reveals that 23.6 million people are affected by this disease, and it has become the 7th major reason of deaths in United States (Rice et al., 2010). Diabetes is pondered over since; it lowers the life mortality by 15 years of the sufferer. Moreover, the patient of diabetes has elevated the chance of catching a heart disease as well. Besides, the patient may develop disorders such as lower limb amputations, blindness, and kidney failure. In addition to this, the cost and expense are raised which are spent for the treatment of diabetes since, it is the lifelong disease. According to the estimation, in 2007, $174 billion were spent on the medical care, premature death, and disability of the diabetic patients (American Diabetes Association, 2013). The number of affected individuals is rising in America as well as around the world. On the other hand, the teenagers have developed the disease in America. Throughout the years from 2000 to 2009, the diabetes among the children has been increased in America. However, the type 1 diabetes is mainly observed to be affecting the children and teens below the age of 20 years due to the auto-immune response. An increase of 21% of the children was found affected from type 1 diabetes from 2000 to 2009. Furthermore, the type 2 diabetes also gets an onset in children and teens due to obesity and estimated elevation of individuals suffering from 2000 to 2009 were raised up to 30%. Recent studies have concluded that almost 167,000 children and teens are suffering from type 1 diabetes throughout the nation in America whereas, the estimation of type 2 diabetics children are 20,000 (Szabo, 2014). The number of children affected from type 1 diabetes is the point of concern because this type 1 diabetes can make the possibilities for the development of the type 2 diabetes among the children in future.
Diabetes can be developed in the people of all ages, races, and ethnic origin. Consequently, diabetes is not dependent on the age, race or any particular group of people, and it can affect any individual. The cause regarding the type 1 diabetes is not yet found and, therefore, the prevention is not possible. It is suggested that the type 1 diabetes has a strong affiliation with the genes of an individual. Type 1 diabetes can be the result of genes inherited or the genes which get modified by some environmental factors. Furthermore, it is observed that certain viruses can be responsible for the type 1 diabetes. The definite factors are not researched successfully for the type 1 diabetes but it is thought that if the family member is affected by the diabetes then there is a possibility for diabetes to prevail in other members of the family as well. On the contrary, some type 1 diabetic patients do not have any family history of diabetes. On the other hand, there are several factors which are involved in the onset of the type 2 diabetes. These factors include: family history, obesity, overweight, sedentary lifestyle, high blood pressure, low cholesterol, stress, conceiving a baby bearing the weight above than 9lbs, and polycystic ovary syndrome (Fletcher et al., 2002). These factors can be in combination or individually responsible for the type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes or pre-diabetes.
The prevention and control of diabetes are not difficult and by adaptation of specific measures the beginning stage of diabetes can be reversed. Also, the pre-diabetes would not lead to the diabetes if the control and prevention steps are followed. The prevention of type 1 diabetes is converse, difficult because it is analyzed to be caused due to genes. Consequently, the prevention is not possible. However, by controlling the diet and following other measures, an individual can prevent the development of type 2 diabetes after the type 1 diabetes. It is noted that the absence of physical activity and obesity are the main reasons behind the diabetes disease. Therefore, in order to control the diabetes, people must be concerned about their diet. Moreover, the physical activity in the form of exercises can be beneficial for the prevention of the diabetes. On the other hand, the people who are at risk for the development of diabetes can reduce the risks through the exercises and by the loss of their body weight. Eating healthy food can help to prevent diabetes. Healthy foods devoid of fats and additive and extra sugars can be beneficial in the control of diabetes, and the disease could not extend to the person who has been affected by diabetes. Family can friends play a vital role in encouraging the individual who is at risk of becoming diabetic. The individual can be convinced to eat healthy foods and get indulged in physical activities by the family and friends. In addition to this, the school can play their part by making the children aware of diabetes and the risk factors which lead to the disease. Moreover, schools can begin the activities which captivate the children in the physical exercise. In this way, the control and prevention of diabetic can be commenced at an early age. Furthermore, awareness programs can have the convincing effect on the adults in order to change their lifestyle. The health care providers can educate the adults through different programs and persuade them to include healthy diet and exercise in their lifestyle. Moreover, the employees can work better if they are physically fit. Therefore, the companies should run the awareness programs for them regarding the control and prevention against the diabetes. The media has an effective manner to convince the people therefore, the media can be used for this purpose and the programs can be played through media which can guide the people to prevent the diabetes and the necessary measures in order to control it.
There are some social, behavioral, and environmental factors associated with the diabetes. the social environment can be the reason of diabetes in an individual because the employment insecurity, low income, low education, poor health due to malnutrition, poor living conditions can contribute to the diabetes. moreover, the environmental factors such as infections, viruses, and toxins can bring the diabetes as these factors destruct the beta cells by the activation of autoimmunity (Yoon, 1989). This auto-immune might work against the beta cells which are responsible for the production of insulin hormone in the human body. It is analyzed that the diabetes is associated with the neurotic impact on the individual. Depression and mood disorder are associated with the diabetes in most of the patients. Moreover, diabetes changes the brain structure and cause alleviation in the cognitive functions. Hence, the behavior of the patient gets changed.
Several organizations play the part in the control and prevention of diabetes among the nation. An organization American Diabetes Association in United States delivers the services to help the affected individuals of diabetes. They gather the funds for the research for managing the control of diabetes. Moreover, they render services for various communities, and grant knowledge and awareness to the patients and health care unit which can manage the prevention of diabetes by convincing the people to follow the preventive measures in order to stay away from the harmful effects of diabetes. On the other hand, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases supports the programs carried out by medical research which are being conducted in the universities and other research institutions. This institute provides the financial support to the national scientist who is conducting the research pertaining the basic and translational information regarding the treatment, control and prevention of the types of diabetes. Moreover, it supports the trainees and students who are interested in carrying out the research on the similar topics. In addition to this, another organization National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse is working efficiently to provide the keen knowledge and awareness among the people related to the diseases of diabetes. This organization works hand in hand with the agencies of government to render the programs and services among the health professionals and common people. Consequently, information regarding the diabetes disease, its causes, control, and prevention can be understood by the people (Mendosa, 2009).
These organizations construct various programs in order to educate the people. The health professionals are informed about the necessary control and prevention measures which in turn convey these measures to the patients. Subsequently, the patients and families get awareness regarding the diabetes. Also, they conduct different programs, conferences, seminars where they invite the general public for this purpose. These organizations carry out the fund rising through the internet where the donor can donate the funds for the cure and research of diabetes online. They utilize the funds for research of different control and prevention steps and incorporate them to revert the diabetes among the diabetic patient. Moreover, they educate the people regarding the symptoms of diabetes. Hence, the individual can consult the health professional after analysis of the symptoms.
Diabetes is the raising disease in the worldwide. Simultaneously it is affecting many individuals in the America as well. Diabetes brings many other disorders which can be lethal. Therefore, it should be control at the initial steps and prevented among the people who are at risk for this disease. Consequently, the programs, organizations, and awareness can reduce the diabetes by the reduction in the factors causing diabetes.
American Diabetes Association. (2013). Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2012. Diabetes Care, 36(4), 1033–1046. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3609540/ on 13th march 2015.
Brahmkshatriya, P. P., Mehta, A. A., Saboo, B. D., & Goyal, R. K. (2012). Characteristics and Prevalence of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). ISRN Pharmacology, 2012, 580202. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3339117/ on 13th march 2015.
Fletcher, B., Gulanick, M., & Lamendola, C. (2002). Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 16(2), 17-23. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11800065 on 13th march 2015.
Kaul, K., Tarr, J. M., Ahmad, S. I., Kohner, E. M., & Chibber, R. (2013). Introduction to diabetes mellitus. In the Diabetes (pp. 1-11). Springer New York. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23393665 on 13th march 2015.
Mendosa. D. (2009). Part 3: Organizations and Charities Web Sites. 1995 - 2015 David Mendosa. Retrieved from http://www.mendosa.com/org.htm on 13th march 2015.
Rice, D., Kocurek, B., & Snead, C. A. (2010). Chronic disease management for diabetes: Baylor Health Care System’s coordinated efforts and the opening of the Diabetes Health and Wellness Institute. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 23(3), 230–234. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2900973/ on 13th march 2015.
Szabo. L. (2014). Diabetes rates skyrocket in kids and teens. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/05/03/diabetes-rises-in-kids/8604213/ on 13th march 2015.
Yoon, J. W. (1989). The role of viruses and environmental factors in the induction of diabetes. Current topics in microbiology and immunology, 164, 95-123. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2073786 on 13th march 2015.