Example Of Ethical Theories Argumentative Essay

Type of paper: Argumentative Essay

Topic: Ethics, Theory, Actions, Society, Morality, People, God, Democracy

Pages: 6

Words: 1650

Published: 2021/01/29

Ethics is a way of thinking and behaviour controlled by the combination of legal, moral, personal, and societal standards of what is right. What is right and the definition of the right never fixed but varies with cultures and situations. Through the definition, its meaning in the context of community intercession consists of a number of guiding ideologies considered right by service providers and community activists. Ethics involves recommending, systematizing and defending concepts of wrong and right conduct. The main questions investigated by ethics is the best way in which people can live, what are the right and wrong actions in a particular situation.
Ethics tries to resolve these questions of morality within humans by looking at the great concepts of right and wrong, and justice and crime and vices and virtues. This paper argues that ethics is the best way of judging and gauging what is good and what is wrong, it tries to elaborate on some of the ways in which human beings can live and coexist peacefully. The five theories of ethics as compares to other theories are the best in achieving this good coexistence in improving the way of live of every individual. The five theories of ethics are, therefore, at this moment explained and their application in achieving the good coexistence amongst people.

Five ethical theories

Utilitarianism
As one of the main theory of ethics, utilitarianism is an awareness of moral worth of a behaviour determined by the contribution of one’s action towards the general value that its impact on pleasure and happiness are summed among all people. Utilitarianism is never concerned with the content of moral action but the morality of the actual action and its outcome. The main goal of this theory is in the maximization of the greatest good for the greatest individual number by looking at the consequences of the persons affected by the behaviour of both short and long term. In this kind of assessment, all individuals are considered equal. The theory is also known as the greatest happiness principle, and it was formed on the ability to predict the impact of an action. The choice that had the greatest support by people is considered the best choice and ethically right, this is the only theory that compares the point system and the similar predicted solutions in determining the best choice for the majority of people. The effect of an action will determine whether it’s morally right or wrong. Moreover, the bad and the good impacts caused by an action are the only relevant effects of actions.

Kant: The Moral Order Theory

The theory is a non-consequential as its judgement is based on the ethical nature of the act rather than the consequence of the act. The theory is composed of categorical imperative and moral law. Three laws govern categorical imperative. The laws include; the act must respect the anatomy of a rational being; the act must be universalizable, and lastly it must respect rational beings as ends in themselves. However, the theory does not give proper guidance to the point where the line is drawn when comparing the welfare of the individual and the society wholly. Therefore, it cannot be easily be used in decision-making. In this theory, the action is considered itself but not the good that can be caused by the action, then deciding if the action can be constituted amongst the rules. In most cases, the rules are expressed negatively for example do not steal, do not lie, and occasionally expressed positively for examples, tell the truth. In his theory, Kant believed that a severe application with the same reasoning will be able to produce an equal success in dealing with the problems of moral philosophy.

Divine Command Theory

This theory suggest that anything r any action is only good because it is commanded to be so by God and, on the other hand, an action or behaviour is considered evil when it is forbidden by God from it occurrence. For example when we are told not to commit murder, it is evil because murder is forbidden by God, on the contrary, when we are told to love our neighbour, it is like we are demanded to do so by God as it is an accepted behaviour according to GOD. The theory asserts that the basis of morality is based outside Gods will, rather it is it is at the mercies of Gods whim. According to Plato’s so-called Euthyphro Dilemmacan, he claimed and asked if an action is only morally right because it’s a command from God or is it commanded by God to be so. This argument by Plato may make one to abandon the Divine Command Theory and put their morality in something else external to God.

Care ethics

Is is considered a feminist philosophical perspective that makes use of the context bound approach and a relational approach towards decision-making and morality. Care ethics suggests that within the fundamental elements of dependencies of human life and relationships, there exist moral significance. This theory tends to maintain relationships by contextualizing and promoting the well-being of caregivers and care-receivers in a system of social relations. From its word care, the theory tends to maintaining the world and meeting the needs of others and ourselves. It aimed at and motivated to caring for those who are vulnerable and dependent. Care ethics came about and inspired by the memories of being cared for and caring for others. The psychologist behind this theory was Carol Gilligan and philosopher Nel Noddings in the mid-1980s. They claimed that the theory is a legitimate substitute for the justice perspective of human right theory.

Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics

The theory is an approach that emphasizes the consequences, rules and particular acts and places focusing on the person acting. The issue here is not whether the intention of the action is right or important or following the correct rule or necessarily the consequence of an action is good, factors which are not all relevant. The characters of a person are always based on their character traits, and these traits can either be good or bad and at a time in between. Within these traits, others are admirable while others are not. The admirable characters are called the virtues while the others that are not admirable are called vices.

Discussion

Utilitarianism takes into account the views of the majority. The majority will have their way while a minority will have just the say. It is one the best and the one I consider as the best among the ethical theories and should be adopted. Utilitarianism encourages the use of torture in interrogation. In this case, a utilitarian will consider any action justified if the action will benefit the majority of people. The right of a single individual may be violated through torture only if by doing so will provide intelligence information that may guarantee the safety of a majority of people. The theory looks at the bigger picture of the society, and a utilitarian will argue that none is bigger than the society, and the action is only considered right when it brings happiness to the larger society. Utilitarian will allow for the killing or death of one person to save two innocent lives, this is not the right way to do things since everyone has a right to living and their rights have to be protected by all means y everyone in the society as no one deserves to live more than the other.
Kant in his theory appreciates the existence of God. His argument that is supported by the majority of philosophers argues that there are some actions that are completely prohibited no even if they bring happiness to our lives. Actions like murder, lying and theft are completely prohibited and should never be encouraged under any circumstances. These actions can never cause any happiness in our lives, and they are at the same time prohibited by God. To mean, they are very punishable. It is one of the most respected views which encourages people to live peacefully with their neighbours. In this case, there are two main question asked by anyone before an action is taken, does the action respect the goal of humankind and is the action rational? These are the main guidelines which have to be considered by every person before taking any action. Harmonious and peaceful coexistence within the society is the main point.
Devine command theory judges one from the perspective of what is considered right or evil to God. It can nowadays be easily ignored by people since good and evil have become arbitrarily to the whim of God. Since God is the supreme being, and his commands have to be followed to the latter, this, therefore, makes morality be a will to power. Good and evil are also based on his commands. It should not be the case since every society has their cultures, and they follow a specific norm. These are the norms that should be used to judge what is right and wrong in order to make people cope up effectively with their neighbours. In this theory, only those who are obedient to Gods commands are considered accepted in the society, this need not to be the case since there are people who do not believe in the Supreme Being but within the society they still do the right things by not infringing on the rights of others.
Ethics of Care being a theory centred on the independence of an individual. It is also one of the sorts of a theory which tends to give people room if possible to help others who are not in a position. The most vulnerable people should, therefore, be helped and protected. In t6his theory, there is no absolute truth, the truth is only considered according to the contextual details of the situation that is used in promoting the needs and interests of the vulnerable. People should therefore not take advantage of the vulnerable, there should be a vulnerable interaction between the vulnerable and the non-vulnerable.
The Virtue of ethics is a fundamental theory that focuses on the improvement of the living in harmony within the society. Here, the action is not very much important but the person performing the action is the centre of attention. The effect and the way the action is performed are not the centres of concern; this, therefore, tries to discourage the bad traits of the society and at the same time encouraging the best traits that are acceptable. The good traits are encouraged within the society to facilitate healthy and harmonious living within the society. The theory is so much important as it aims at encouraging the members of the society to always do right. The moral values of the community are achieved through the doing the right deeds which are much acceptable within the society.
In conclusion, Ethical theories are put across in facilitating the best coexistence amongst the members of the society. In any good and harmonious living, all the virtues of appreciation of the way pleasure, honour, virtue, friendship and well fits together. In any kind of behaviour change, practical wisdom is required which cannot just be solely got from general rules but from good and directed actions within the society which are guided by ethical theories. All these ethical theories aims at attaining moral values within the society. Within the society, the majority will always have their way while the minority their say, this is the reason all the ethical theories are geared towards attaining the required ethical standards. Also, for harmonious coexistence within the society, the vulnerable have to be protected to feel part of the society.

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WePapers. (2021, January, 29) Example Of Ethical Theories Argumentative Essay. Retrieved June 18, 2024, from https://www.wepapers.com/samples/example-of-ethical-theories-argumentative-essay/
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Example Of Ethical Theories Argumentative Essay. Free Essay Examples - WePapers.com. https://www.wepapers.com/samples/example-of-ethical-theories-argumentative-essay/. Published Jan 29, 2021. Accessed June 18, 2024.
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