Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Conscience, Ethics, Morality, Actions, Religion, Complicity, Doctor, Orr

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2020/10/29


In this discussion on Conscience, a variety of findings will be addressed. These relate to one another in specific ways and their contexts will be explained. Evidence of multiple interpretations will be presented in a balanced and coherent discussion of variegated themes and concepts.
A person who is conscientious may ideally strive towards moral integrity and preservation. External behaviors in this case should be synchronized with internal dictations about what they feel is right and should be done. Since conflict may arise in such a diverse world as ours, it is commonplace for the ideals of an individual to come in juxtaposition with those of society. All societies identify certain conscience and conscientious terms for best conduct. This can be seen in democratic, liberal and other constitutional aspects of state. While diversity and tolerance of religious freedom is commonly adhered to, there are often differences between the ethics a person holds and how they are executed in practice (Pellegrino, 221).
Many of these dilemmas are associated with physicians practicing beyond their faith in the Roman Catholic Church. ‘Human life’ issues demonstrate how religious beliefs may require limited participation in certain actions or ideas in society. These are prevalent for issues that nurses or social workers deal with as well as allied professionals within the health care system (Pellegrino, 221).
In order to create a good law, society must practice and adhere to a standard of good ethics. This means that moral weight and justification are necessary for enabling rights and claims. While these are difficult to justify, there are several integral conflicts of conscience. Additionally, a moral grounding towards freedom is necessary to exercise human conscience with clarity. Aspects of a physician’s conscience or competing models of conflict resolution are necessary to best functioning as well (Pellegrino, 221).
Many issues relating to conscience are pertinent in the medical fields. When a pharmacist refuses to fill emergency contraceptive prescriptions for a rape victim, the rights of a woman are mitigated. Any time refusal of a legally valid prescription occurs there is infringement on the equal protection rights under the 14th Amendment (James, 415). While forcing a pharmacist to fill prescriptions that are against their will or religious beliefs may weigh on their conscience, it is in the bet interest of the patient. This is one example of how conscience can be used against the best practices of healthcare and medical administration.
In analyzing the consequences of such physician actions there are several varieties of understanding conscience that relate to secular traditions. Not only are there consequences to their patients, yet divine retribution for religious physicians and temporary discrepancies for applying secular reasoning can lead to seemingly immoral actions. Since this issue relates to religious and non-religious individuals it has an impact in all areas of conscience within a profession (Orr, 23).
The issue of moral complicity in relation to a professional conscience discusses issues of uncertainty. This is because it is critical to availability and probability as well as understanding an individual’s moral makeup. Since a physician acts as an extension of their institution, they must be involved with all practices of the governing body. This elicits some fundamental problem with state ordered executions or other participation in actions against what the professional may believe (Orr, 23).
Other issues of moral complicity in terms of personal conscience suggest that there are connections between the moral statuses of one individual in relation to the actions of a second. For example, an action by the first person could allow future immoral actions performed by the second person. This timing matter would create issues of conscience for the first individual. Second, moral culpability for a particular action, in many cases abortion, may be shared amongst a group. This can be seen when a physician is creating a procedure while a nurse is assisting. Both individuals may be following the orders of a judge that could seem intuitive and seemingly may feel less harm to their conscience the further they were down the decision-making hierarchy. This defines the proximity an individual has to the choices pertaining to moral complicity (Orr, 23).
Immoral actions in the past can also inculcate conscience issues in the present. When an individual is certain that past conduct is illustrating present and future actions, there becomes a variety of consciousness discrepancies. Alternatively, if the first person does not know of an immoral act performed by a second individual, it becomes difficult to understand the moral complicity. Intent is the most important aspect of conscience research because it allows for an individual to have a position of deciphering or creating moral value from the decisions of another. Many examples of this are present in healthcare with regards to abortions and a women’s choice for sex selection. Depending on the perspective of the patient and healthcare clients it is possible to ascertain individual opinions about the vaccine or other issues of moral complicity (Orr, 23). When a physician decides what is right or wrong, they apply principles from their person as well as their profession in discerning moral and conscience validity (Pellegrino, 221).
In conclusion there are a variety of significant beliefs that constitute the understanding and present value of conscience. Not only are there benefits to society with the proper understanding and utilization of these aspects of human behavior. Ultimately a conscience is based on the virtues and values of the professional involved.

Works Cited

James, Katherine A. "Conflicts of Conscience." Washburn LJ 45 (2005): 415.
Orr, Robert D. "The role of moral complicity in issues of conscience." The American Journal of Bioethics 7.12 (2007): 23-24.
Pellegrino, Edmund D. "Physician's Conscience, Conscience Clauses, and Religious Belief: A Catholic Perspective, The." Fordham Urb. LJ 30 (2002): 221.
Smith, Steven D. "Tenuous Case for Conscience, The." Roger Williams UL Rev. 10 (2004): 325.
Sulmasy, Daniel P. "What is conscience and why is respect for it so important?." Theoretical medicine and bioethics 29.3 (2008): 135-149.

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