Free Research Paper On How Advertising Influence In Bulimia And Anorexia
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In the 21st century, teen girls fear gaining weight than they are afraid of nuclear war, cancer or even losing parents. This notion has been brought across by the constant stream of media as well as peer pressures related body images. It is a fact that media today show them clearly that their value is based on the outward appearance. The society is telling people they must look thinner and muscular to be accepted, loved and furthermore, if they had wanted a successful life. However, of recent people are coming to their understanding that beauty goes beyond skin deep. Books and health department is encouraging people to look beyond the media’s outlook of exquisiteness so as not to make a slip-up of falling to bits of negative cadaver icon and eating disarray (Gillard, 35).
Today’s society, media and peer pressure have great influence majorly on teens about their self image. These factors usually distort their mind, causing them to engage themselves in high risk behaviors to proclaim their self image. In fact, this risk behavior engagements accelerates one they felt they have not measured up with the impossible goals ahead them. The self image issue has led to eating disorders, alcohol and drug abuse, bullying, acerbic and more so sexual addiction among certain individuals in the society especially women. This work will focus on the contribution of advertisement to the eating disorders bulimia and anorexia (Gillard, 35).
According to (Halliwell, 32) the statistics of eating disorder have shown that up to 24 million people of all ages are eating disorder in the United States. It is estimated that 50 percent of eating disorder meet the criteria for depression. The mortality rate of eating disorder is higher than any other mental disease. In the United States in 2013, 91 percent of all, girls who have been surveyed in the campus had been having attempted to control their weight through dieting. Statistics have shown that 95 percent Anorexia and Bulimia disorder case are for young people from the age of 16 to 25 years. Women have a greater tendency of developing an eating disorder than men. It is only about 15 percent of all cases of bulimia and anorexia cases are male according to the 2014 statistics. Anorexia has a greater mortality rate of 4 percent compared to bulimia which has 3 percent of all mortality rates among eating disorder.
Bulimia nervosa is a disorder associated with problematic eating and is usually represented by purging and binge eating. This is an intake of large amounts of food within a short period of time the followed by an attempt to get rid of it, typically through forced vomiting or using a stimulant, diuretic or laxative and also vigorous exercise. These entire attempts are focused on the idea about extensive body weight loss. Most of the individuals with this disease have an additional psychiatric disorder that is usually characterized by mood disorders, impulse control, substance abuse and more so anxiety. In some case patient seems to alternate bulimia with anorexia nervosa. The symptoms of this disease include weight fluctuation, excessive excises, unhealthy hair, skin and nails as well as regular skipping food. Actually, it is more difficult to detect this disease than its close resemblance with anorexia. The individual usually seems to have normal weight and even at times overweight. The historical diagnostic criteria for this disease were not known till 1979 (Sonenklar, 56).
On the other hand, anorexia nervosa is another eating disorder that is usually characterized by food restriction with odd eating habits and obsession of having a thin figure due to the irrational fears of weight gain. This eating disorder is usually accompanied by excessive body weight loss and distorted body self perception. Usually in most cases the patient suffers from a body disorder known as body dysmorphia. The individuals have a perception that they look overweight and this pattern is usually life threatening. The warning signs and symptoms of this disease include underweight, over-exercise, refusal to eat, unhealthy nails, skin and hair (Sonenklar, 56). One major indirect cause of these two eating disorders has been associated with advertising over the past thirty years. However, no responsibility has been taken to the advertisers. The recent studies in 2010 by the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders has shown raise in these eating disorders over last three decades. In the 1970s the average age a girl would diet was at 14 years, but by the 90s this had dropped to 8 years. Today, 81 percent of girls with age 10 years are afraid of getting fat and have of them are currently on a diet.
The ideal body image among teens, especially girls is from an advertisement. The advertisements are shown to sell images of slim, dazzling light skinned women. Along these advertisements is a message from the advertising company telling women to lose weight as well as increase the size of their breast. Actually, the notion about this ideal image of beauty has led to women between the age of 11 and 17 to lose weight, according to the statistics of the Health and Natural journal of 2013. These images are found in magazines, films, newspapers and the television commercial. Moreover, the invention of social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter and others has become more influential especially with the rise of socialist blogs. The television commercial and internet advertisement are calling for women and girls to lose weight or apply the beauty products if there rely want to find love or regain happiness once more (Sonenklar, 56).
Over 80 percent of Americans watch television daily and on average these people have over 3 hours on average starring at the television. American children engage in increased amount of media as a result of the wide spread of internet access through phones and laptops. On a typical day, and 18 years old teen has about 7.5 hours of media. Most of this time is spent on television and internet. Although, young children spend about one hour playing computer games they spend more time in children elementary media. However, even these media aimed for young children, such as animated cartoons as well as children's videos, games or are seen to emphasize the importance of being attractive corrupting young children's minds (Gillard, 35).
Films are major areas where advertisement causes bulimia and anorexia. Most films affected young girls negatively by the overpowering message they receive from portraying skinny movie stars. Most of the movies ideal actress are usually thin and skinny , therefore discouraging and making most young girls to fear being fat, especially those who want to venture in the film industries. A character who normally appears with heavy weight, be it men or women are given a role in areas that despise them such as cooks, the condemned or on the weaker team (National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders 17). The media, especially television young teenagers definition of magnificence and charisma are usually taken on the cultural characterization of what the public wants adolescent girls to look like, therefore we cannot associate it to directly cause eating disorders. However, it plays a big significant role in young boys and girls drive for slenderness as well as body discontent. Due to the more time women spend on daily they usually learn different behaviors and perception of weight, especially by watching then shows and heavy showers. Most shows tend to alarm women through the television sit corns due to the many jokes aimed at those people with heavy weight.
Furthermore, women in the society are more vulnerable to receive comments about their appearance which is about 28 percent of television media compared to men who account for 10 percent comment on their outlook. Women who view television have the most cases of seeing themselves fat as compared to women who have not seen television therefore implying television have a major contribution to these eating disorders. The television media has also great pressure among men to become more muscular thereby causing body dissatisfaction among men (Gauging the Effects Of Thin Models In Media, 21). This effect is smaller among women, but is has also a significant implication. Many magazines usually show pictures sexually objected images on women and girls, especially on wall of companies advertising their product. These pictures in most cases are of social models such as singers, comedian and socialist who are mostly skinny with big hips and large breast. Male pictures are usually of heavily masculine males who lack port bellies. These pictures usually serve a negative perception to younger teenagers, especially ladies who start viewing themselves as large therefore going on diet to have shape.
In most cases, media advertisement has been shown to convey hidden meaning on food-nostalgia, being a good housewife or mother, sexiness among others which usually creates unnatural drives for food. These unnatural drives for food include avoiding some food, pattern of feeding as well as the amount of food consumed. The media has occasionally been seen to persuade wrong eating habits. This kind of advertisement such like the recent case in which a young boy is seen persuading his parent to buy him a burger and chips rather than a healthy outing to the zoo is very misleading (Ballaro, 69). Most advertisements in the television are usually to bring up unnecessary anxieties about being deprived if one does not have everyone seems to have. The media of recent have actually presented with an ideal shape which should be invested if one actually had the desire to look desirable, attractive, successful and most of all lovable. However, these ideas can only be achieved through dangerous eating habits which then result to health implication of anorexia and bulimia. The media propagates the sensation in people who lack the ideal shape that their life would be all right if they happened to be slim (Sonenklar, 37).
In conclusion, It is important to note that it is usually very hard to identify the relationship between the media and eating disorder if the multifaceted impact of media messages on body size, desirability of particular food, food consumption and their consequent consumptions are not considered. People should realize the ideal body size is what they have a not what the media describes. The body image is influenced by person's self esteem. It should also be noted that these diseases are preventable and also curable especially at early stages.
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"National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders." Eating Disorders Statistics. N.p., 2015. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.
Ballaro Wagner, Beverly Geraldine. "Body Image And The Media Debate." Salem Press Encyclopedia (2015): Research Starters. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.
Gillard, Arthur. Anorexia and Bulimia. , 2013. Print.
Halliwell, Emma, Helga Dittmar, and Jessica Howe. "The Impact Of Advertisements Featuring Ultra Thin Or Average-Size Models On Women With A History Of Eating Disorders." Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 15.5 (2005): 406-413. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Mar. 2015.-
Postrel, Virginia. "The Truth About Beauty." Atlantic 299.2 (2007): 125. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 5 Mar. 2015.
Sonenklar, Carol. Anorexia and Bulimia. Minneapolis: Twenty-First Century Books, 2011. Print
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