Free Research Paper On Pethidine, Syntocinon And Makena

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Pregnancy, Drugs, Nursing, Labour, Children, Pharmacy, Women, Apple

Pages: 3

Words: 825

Published: 2021/01/04

One of the critical ways of encouraging healthy birth is having a healthy pregnancy. An individual should get early and regular care to improve the pregnant woman and her unborn child healthy. The care begins immediately after conception to birth. Regular physical exercise and checkups reduces the risk of pregnancy complications, child’s difficulties and ensuring the woman takes safe medications. During the course of pregnancy including labour, there are different types of medication used by a woman under different circumstances of complications through each stage of gestation and labour. The three drugs selected that are used during pregnancy and to relief labour pain are pethidine, Syntocinon, and Makena. Their classification, drug action, the therapeutic effect, contraindications and possible adverse side effects are also included in the report (Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses, 2015).
Pethidine is also known as “meperidine” is opioid analgesics that is easily found and are in use by any ward at the Princess Margaret Hospital. Pethidine is an opiate that comes from the opium plant also known poppy and is a synthetic version of morphine. Pethidine imitates the action of normal endorphins by joining with the opioid receptors in the spinal cord and the brain. It can also block the transmission of pain signals sent the brain by the nerves. Therefore, even though the cause of the pain may remain, less pain is felt. In addition, it is typically used during childbirth, as its effects are shorter-lasting than some of the others. It also can be used before and during a surgical operation. Pethidine is usually given as an injection but can be taken by mouth as a tablet (Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses, 2015).
There are contraindications and precautions that are associated with the use of pethidine as a medication for relieving pain. Chronic use may pose a risk to the foetus including possible addiction. Mothers that breastfeed should not use Pethidine as the drug can be excreted in breast milk and can cause infant’s respiratory depression. It can also cause cardiovascular; seizures, confusion, sedation, dysphoria, euphoria, floating feeling, hallucinations, headache, and unusual dreams. More so, it can cause eye, ear, nose and throat; blurred vision, diplopia, miosis effects. In addition, leads to respiratory depression and hypotension, bradycardia. Gastrointestinal: constipation, nausea, vomiting. Genitourinary: urinary retention. Dermatologic: flushing, sweating. Miscellaneous: allergic reactions including anaphylaxis, physical dependence, psychological dependence, and tolerance (Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses, 2015).
Syntocinon is called “Oxytocin” is a synthetic form of the naturally-occurring hormone Oxytocin. Injection typically gives it; the oxytocin within the drug is a synthetic form of the hormone oxytocin but works in the same way as the natural hormone. It is used to induce labour for medical reasons or if labour has not started naturally. It is also used to stimulate labour that is ongoing naturally and considered fragile to push out the baby. In this case, the Syntocinon medication strengthens the contractions of the uterus. Furthermore, it is used after the baby has been born to manage the third stage of labour. It also stimulates the womb to contract through injection shortly after the baby has been born. It reduces the risk of heavy bleeding and also helps the placenta part from the womb to speed up and get pushed out. Additionally, it can be used when the contractions are considered too weak and during caesarian section following delivery of the child. Finally, it is known to be employed in the management of certain types of miscarriage. Syntocinon is contraindicated in women with anticipated non-vaginal delivery. It is also advised to be used cautiously in first and second stages of labour to relax infusion over 24 hr. And that might cause water intoxication with coma and seizure or maternal death due to oxytocin's antidiuretic effect (Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses, 2015).
There are several contrary reactions and side effects of Syntocinon medications. Cardiovascular: maternal—coma, seizures, foetal intracranial haemorrhage. Respiratory: fatal—Asphyxia, hypoxia. Central Venous Pressure: maternal hypotension, foetal arrhythmias. Fluid and electrolytes: maternal hypochloremia, hyponatremia, and water intoxication. Misc such as maternal— increase uterine motility, painful contractions, abruption placentae, decrease uterine blood flow (Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses, 2015).
Makena is classified as “hydroxyprogesterone caproate” is a hormone medicine (progestin). Makena medications indicate to lessen the risk of preterm birth in women who are one baby pregnant and who have delivered preterm (baby too early) in the past. It was approved by the FDA on 8th February 2011. The intention of the medication is not to prevent preterm birth in females pregnant with more than one baby like twins or triplets. Additionally, it is not designed to stop active preterm labour. It produces secretory changes in the endometrium. It increases basal temperature. Also, it produces changes in the vaginal epithelium. Relaxes uterine smooth muscle stimulates mammary alveolar growth and inhibits pituitary function.
Makena medication is contraindicated in females with a known history of thrombosis/ thromboembolic disorder. Also contraindicated to the woman with known history or suspected breast cancer or other hormone-sensitive cancer such as unexplained abnormal vaginal bleeding unrelated to pregnancy. And the one with cholestasis jaundice of gestation like benign/malignant liver tumours or active liver disease such uncontrolled hypertension. Possible adverse side effects are cardiovascular system such as depression. Central Venous Pressure like high blood pressure. Gastrointestinal: diarrhoea, jaundice, and nausea. Dermatologic: Urticaria, pruritus. Fluid and Electrolytes: fluid retention. Hematologic: thromboembolism. Local: injections site reactions. Misc: allergic reactions including angioedema (Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses, 2015).
In conclusion, physical exercise and regular checkups should be considered for a pregnant woman very seriously because it enables healthy birth. The medications that are taken in during pregnancy and labour pain such as pethidine, Syntocinon and Makena are fully and explicitly described. All their uses, contradictions, side effects and other factors are all considered in the report (Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses, 2015).


Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses (2015) [Computer Software]. Retrieved March 20, 2015, from
Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses (2015) [Computer Software]. Retrieved March 20, 2015, from
Davis's Drug Guide for Nurses (2015) [Computer Software]. Retrieved March 20, 2015, from

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