Free Women Studies Essay Sample
Women and gender is a field of interdisciplinary study taking gender as the central and vital focus of analysis, whereby gender has been a constitutive field that has created meaning in the history of humanity. The study of women and gender works towards reframing the position of gender as a foundation to the work of political, economical, social aesthetic and cultural systems. Women studies connect the subjects of sexuality, class, gender and nation in an attempt to provide a definition of identity as fundamental and complex social phenomenon. There are various popular methodologies in the field of women studies including; intersectionality, multiculturalism, auto-ethnography, transitional feminism, standpoint theory and reading activities that are associated with queer theory, critical theory and post-structuralism. In an attempt to accentuate the gender issues surrounding society, this paper explains the concept of feminism and the influence of gender in various dimensions of society, while furthering the explanation of women and work, as associated to work in and out of the homestead.
Approaches in intersectional basis explain that the study of women and gender draws from the theories and methodologies of various disciplines because gender traverses all fields of inquiry. From diverse standpoints of environment and literature, political sciences and economics, psychology and media studies, scholars often pose a rigorous and relevant inquiry to the strong influence on the concepts of gender. In the idea of examining the concept of masculinity and feminism across various cultural concepts and histories, the topic of women and gender studies highlights the aspects of transgender, gay, queer and lesbian perspectives that have formed root in society over time. Women and gender studies provides a firm field that is planted in acts of activism towards the strive for social justice, amongst gender equity in the "real-world" links between various areas in society. The study of women and gender as an interdisciplinary field, examines gender in the view that it is a cultural and social construction. Drawing from the academic areas of popular culture, literary criticism, anthropology, psychology and history, the major blends and crosses the boundaries that have existed within traditional disciplines. It allows scholars to bring our important questions that cover the areas and topics discussing the way human beings organize themselves; which indulge chief political, economical, social and cultural institutions.
The study of women and gender attempts to explore the various ways of education and learning through shaping the classroom environment and providing maximum encouragement to a purposeful interactive dynamic. The study provides a value guarantee towards the opinion of scholars partaking this field, taking their perspectives and general contributions into consideration, in every day classroom dialogues. The study further analyzes the problematic and powerful impacts of inequalities, with revision on how individuals perceive themselves and the world.
The study of women and gender touches on the topics of broad aspects of society that have been thwarted through history, but results of activism have led to their address. The major and controversial field of topic the study of women and gender is the study of intersectionalism. Intersectionalism is defined as the study and analysis of intersections between systems or forms of domination, discrimination and oppression. The common example of this study is the aspect of black feminism that argues the everyday life experiences of black women, which cannot be described in terms of either being a woman or being black. The explanation to this case includes and uses interactions that are regularly reinforced by one another. The feminist theory, based on the field of sociology, was coined by contemporary philosopher, Kimberle Crenshaw, in 1989. Her concept can be traced back to early 19th century times, suggesting and seeking to examine how a variety of social, cultural and biological categories such as caste, race, sexual orientation, religion, species, gender and ability amongst other identity axes interact on simultaneous and multiple levels that contribute to the systematic social inequality and injustice. Intersectionality holds the idea that classical conceptualizations regarding oppression in a society such as biphobia, racism, transphobia, homophobia and bigotry that is based on belief, do not operate independently, but rather correlate and act in union. The form that these agents take is represented by an interrelation of these oppression forms, which create a system and cycle of oppression, thus reflecting the "intersection" of many forms of discrimination.
Women and Work
The contemporary society has a record of a percentage-point shy from making women the majority global workforce. This has become an economic downturn for most male workers who have lived in a time of male dominated societies. With the rise of the man-cession, most leadership positions and numerous societal positions have been divided according to levels of professionalism and qualification. The strategy of women in leadership has been identified by Sally Helgesen as one of the vital priority areas that will lead citizens to attaining gender equality. Organizations for women’s development, WEDO (Women’s Environment and Development Organization), advocate for the representation of women in the decision-making processes of communities, business sectors, governments and different areas of society. In past societies, women have been underrepresented in various leadership roles of the society. The restriction of access and support, by women, in the workforce resulted in huge wage gaps. Men’s income doubled and tripled women’s income figures. For decades, female leaders have been struggling to balance the inequality that is created by traditional and out-dated female gender norms (Helgesen, 15). There are many stereotypes that are perpetuated in the society concerning the role of women, especially regarding leadership. Inequities have been forever evident in industrialized and developing societies, where there are unequal access and distribution of capital, jobs and basic commodities.
However, women are a major growing factor in many developed societies. It is apparent in Sally Helgesen’s (76) statement that women leaders are highly assertive, persuasive and willing to go into risks than their male counterparts. This is also accompanied with the innate traits of women such as flexibility and empathy, also with the great ability of interpersonal skills. The past ideal concerning leadership was that masculinity is equal to effective leadership. In the current society, governance of states and cities is a crucial task that involves interaction with many sectors of the economy. There have always existed female leaders since time immemorial. Since the period of the Egyptian queens around the 3000 BCE period, to great leaders such as Ku-baba who led the Mesopotamian Empire in 2500 BCE, female leaders have always existed. Until World War I and its aftermath, women had not participated as members of the revolutionary government in the United States. Developments during these times were slow-paced, however, with the increase of the 20th century government reforms (Helgesen, 30).
Women have been regarded as the majority of the most successful entrepreneurs in business, over the past decade. This is evident by the increase in reforms since the policy for women in governance was fully implemented in Washington, D.C. and allowing women’s participation in the state’s decision-making process. Civil rights movements have consciously scrutinized the issues of gender restrictions to access in fields of occupation and leadership fields, with the various forms of harassment that accompany women pursuing these fields. Decisions made by female leaders all around the globe are connected in a large and diverse network that serves to improve the female individual in the decision-making. Decision-making positions cut across the different societies and their economies. Organizations such as the Women in Management promote the female population’s participation in male-dominated areas. Other organizations have been formed to increase women’s presence in the top responsibilities involving business and politics.
In running the activities of the city, a good female employee or leader should possess a lot of intelligence. This should encompass strong verbal abilities, reasoning and perceptual experiences. Research conducted by WEDO, shows that a good amount of leaders’ intellectual capabilities should be ranging at close levels, in order to avoid counter productivity. These leaders should also portray self-confidence and the ability to the hold certainty in one’s skills and competencies. Leaders should be able to maintain high levels of self-esteem and self-assurance. This knowledge allows leaders to be able to influence the decisions of civilians and fellow participants in the policy-making process. Great leaders should be determined and have a desire to accomplish their set goals.
Helgesen, Sally. The female advantage. New York: Doubleday Dell Publishing Group Inc., 1995. Print.