Good Case Study On Human Factors
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1. The definition of terms based on the book
a. Positions – Positions refer to the specific solution, which will address or lead to the desired outcome of the party. The party in the conflict often decides his or her position without external influence.
b. Interests – interest refers to the underlying reasons for the outcome and position desired by the party in the conflict. They are intangible motivations.
c. Needs - they are the fundamental elements that the party in the conflict feels they must have for the fulfillment of their welfare. They are often essential for survival.
d. Values – value is the forecasted outcomes desired by the parties to the conflict. They are the “what should be” elements of the conflicts (Katz, Lawyer, & Koppelman, 2010, p. 116).
2. Three examples of each of the concepts
Positions - examples include dollars, cents, and the terms and conditions of receiving them such as cheques
Interests – intangible motivations such as social status, jealousy, and happiness.
Needs – Necessities such as self-esteem, good health, and supply of food.
Values - examples include compensation for infringing one’s right, meeting legal obligations, and traditional rights such as inheritance.
3. The relationship between positions, interest, and needs.
Yes, a conflict can be about resources and values at the same time. The values define the “what should be” elements of the conflicts. Resources may be aspects defined by the values. For instance, if two countries conflict over control of a region with mineral deposits, the value is the acquisition of the area while the minerals are the scarce resources leading to the values.
Evaluating the positions of the parties in the conflict helps to determine if its centers on values or resources. For instance, if the parties agree that sharing the resources in a region will solve the conflict, the value can be identified by their desire to own a section of the region and enjoy the resources it offers.
If a conflict is about resources, the possible outcome is that one party may lose at the expense of the other who is left to derive all the benefits of the subject in question. For instance, in a case where two nations conflict over the control of an area rich with mineral deposits the decision may be made in the favor of one country. A majority of the region’s inhabitants may be from the country favored in the decision to resolve the conflict. In this case, one party loses the exclusive ownership while the other derives the full benefits.
A conflict etched on values may result from the beliefs of the parties. In this case, the decision made to resolve the conflict may lead to exclusive benefits for one party and a loss for the other. For instance, if two siblings conflict over the division of inheritance where the parent left a will, the decision will base on the terms of the will and rule in favor of either of them.
The problem is defined clearly.
The methods evaluate the interest of both parties.
The decision reached is fair based on the facts of the conflict.
There is no bias in all the steps.
Values and needs differ between the parties and the steps.
The options presented to the parties differ.
Human needs are the most important model of conflict resolution because it resolves conflicts based on the inherent things that people could not live without having. In the values and resources model, the focus is on the resolution of conflicts over the things people desire to have. They are important because they enable the parties acquire what they deserve.
Katz, N. H., Lawyer, J. W., & Koppelman M. (2010). Communication & conflict resolution skills (2nd ed.). Kendall Hunt Publishing
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