Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Surgery, Organ Transplantation, Cancer, Human, Aliens, Innovation, Time Management, Surgeon

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2023/02/22

PROPOSAL

Introduction
Purpose
The current paper is aimed to review the literature based on the laparoscopy and its implications in the surgery by means of robotic support systems. The research question of this paper is, “What are the advances in the laparoscopic surgery and where this research is headed?”

History and Purpose of Laparoscopy

Dr. McEwen being the pioneer of robots in medical-science presented the very first robot in 1983 to perform certain tasks in surgery. The robotic-structure was used to provide facilitation in processes related to orthopedically surgeries. The process consisting of robots providing assistance in surgical processes by passing surgical-instruments and these robots were controlled and commanded by using the voice recognition mechanisms by surgeons. Moreover, these robots were utilized in the about 60 surgeries and the most enthralling assistance provided by these robots consisted of their applied help in the most challenging surgical-process of that time i.e. brain biopsy (Hockstein et al., 2007). The attainment of robots utilization in this process ensured that these robots can be used in more technical, time-taking and variety of surgeries.
The application of robots was further utilized in 1985 that incorporated the laparoscopic surgery, which involved the robotic assistance in performing the prostatic-surgery and the practical of this procedure took place in St. Thomas Hospital, London, and the procedure was directed by Dr. Nathan. Further advancement in the robotic-structures also enhanced the application of the robot, which was named as Robodoc, in hip-replacement and the procedure were facilitated by the cooperation of IBM (Lanfranco et al., 2004). Moreover, the heart by-pass surgical-method was also enhanced with the use of robots in 1998 in Germany and the outcome of the surgical-procedures proved that the efficiency and effectiveness of the surgery is increased with the application of robots known as Da Vinci in surgical-processes and hence, the robots proved to be more beneficial in crucial surgeries. In 2006, the robot was assigned to technically process the surgery on human-male for the heart and the study also demonstrated its high efficiency in the success of surgery with respect to human-surgeons. By the year 2009, the robots have been upgraded to respond to force-feedback during the operation and crucial surgeries like kidney transplant and bladder reconstruction have become possible with increased efficiency (Yates et al., 2011).
The combined work accompanied by NASA and DAPRA resulted in the development of a robotic-system which was able to conduct telesurgery in which the physical presence of the surgeon was not required and the robot was directed remotely by the surgeon in order to perform the surgery. The utilization of telesurgery proved its efficiency in laparoscopic surgeries with the increased rate of dexterity with respect to human-operated surgeries (Hockstein et al., 2007).
Although, the laparoscopic-surgery is proven beneficial and dexterous in medical science, but the technology is not yet proven to be fully dependable, therefore, this advancement in robotic technology is still in its developing stage and further studies and improvements are required to enhance its effectiveness. The excursion of robots has taken its form in reality and over the period of time its utilization has been enhanced, but further advancements are also crucial and necessary to aid the medical surgeries.

Areas of Research

The current research will cover the advancements in laparoscopic surgery and the areas with this respect will be covered. The areas of this research will consist on the Telesurgery, Radiosurgery and Transplant surgery as these topics are found to be interrelated by means of robotic laparoscopy and are considered to be the major advancement in the field of laparoscopy.

Telesurgery

The telesurgical system or telesurgery facilitates the surgical process from long distances in which surgeons can carry out their surgical procedures by being physically absent from the place where the surgery is being performed. In this way, robotic systems are implicated to take command from surgeons and carry out surgical activities. Therefore, the process consists of the advanced surgical unit which is found to be efficient in which the travel cost and travel time of the surgeon is utilized efficiently and the accuracy provided by the robotic systems in the laparoscopy provides the optimum post-surgery results (Satcher et al. 2014).

Radiosurgery

The Radiosurgery incorporates the radiations which help in the excision of human tissue during the surgery and the excision made with this technology is considered to be more accurate than the traditional methods. Radiosurgery is found to be highly effective among the cancer patients and is considered to provide long term health related benefits to the patients by reducing the over exposure of patients with the radiation. The treatment is found to time efficient and is considered to be less painful to the patients. The required exposure of radiation is taken into account which reduces the side effects caused by the radiations provides higher level of accuracy during the surgery (Caballero et al. 2012).

Transplant Surgery

Robots increase the stability of the operating process with respect to human-hands, and thus this stability of incision leads to the surgeons being able to contact with specific areas and tissues in a perfect manner, which on the other hand, if operated manually by surgeons then the instability of human-hands or shakes could have led to the adverse results of operations. Therefore, the enhanced view and surgeon’s capability to reach complex tissues decrease the number of incisions made in each surgery because the miniature surgical-robots inside the human body provide the surgeons with the ability to maneuver inside tissues and operate accordingly, which ultimately increases the attainment of surgical outcomes (Corcione et al., 2005). Therefore, the transplant surgery is critical and the implication of robotic systems by laparoscopy enhances the accuracy level (Wolters et al. 2014).

Audience

The current paper is aimed to address the college seniors who are studying medical & surgical sciences and biomedical engineering so that the knowledge provided in this paper can help them to understand the efficiency and advancements in laparoscopic surgical systems in order to achieve the optimum health related results.

Methodology

The current study is based on the primary research, in which conclusions and understandings are drawn from the prior researches including the peer reviewed journals and research articles. The primary research will be obtained from the IEEE Spectrum, EMERALD, JSTOR and Google Scholar in order to ensure the credibility of the acquired sources. The biasness will be reduced by collecting the primary researches from the authors corresponding from all over the world so that implications of the current topic will be visualized in a large perspective. The primary sources will not be outdated than 5 years so that their relevance with respect to the advanced researches and phenomenon will be maintained. The search will be based on the articles and researches which will be acquired from the results by the Keyword searches, mainly comprising of “Robotic “Laparoscopic Surgery”, “Telesurgery”, “Radiosurgery” and “Transplant Surgery.” The articles will be found at once with respect to their keyword findings and will be grouped in order to their relevance and will be discussed separately in the analytical report to ensure the systematic discussion and derivation of conclusion from the study.

Qualifications

I tend to lack the professional experience in this field although; I possess the basic knowledge related to the bioengineering and robotics. Moreover, the current research will increase my knowledge with the effective utilization of the subject matter that I have learnt throughout my academics.

Plan

What are the advances in the laparoscopic surgery and where this research is headed?
The need for laparoscopy
Human Conditions that will benefit from the laparoscopy.
Cancer
Tumor
Microscopic Incision
Accuracy and Optimized Results
Other Implications of Laparoscopy
Telesurgery
Radiosurgery
Transplant Surgery

Integration of Surgical Processes

Telesurgery

Development of robotic surgical systems.

Enhancement with tele-surgical mechanisms.
Integration with surgeon
Radiosurgery

Development of robotic surgical systems.

Enhancement with Radio-surgical mechanisms.
Integration with surgeon
Transplant Surgery

Development of robotic surgical systems.

Enhancement with Transplant-surgical mechanism.
Integration with surgeon.
Schedule
April 25 Start working on report with the turn-in proposal.
April 28 Complete the search of sources and start studying the searched sources.
April 30 Develop the report outline.
May 3 Finish the maximum research.
May 7 Develop the first draft of the report.
May 10 Complete the formatted draft for peer.
May 13 Submit the draft for supervisor’s review.
May 16 Full draft for the class including the supplemental pages.
May 19 Finish the minor adjustments and visual aids.
May 21 Turn-in the finalized report.
Preliminary Bibliography
Caballero, J. A., Sneed, P. K., Lamborn, K. R., Ma, L., Denduluri, S., Nakamura, J. L., & McDermott, M. W. (2012). Prognostic factors for survival in patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent brain metastases after prior whole brain radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics, 83(1), 303-309.
Hockstein, N. G., Gourin, C. G., Faust, R. A., & Terris, D. J. (2007). A history of robots: from science fiction to surgical robotics. Journal of robotic surgery, 1(2), 113-118.
Lanfranco, A. R., Castellanos, A. E., Desai, J. P., & Meyers, W. C. (2004). Robotic surgery: a current perspective. Annals of surgery, 239(1), 14-21.
Satcher, R. L., Bogler, O., Hyle, L., Lee, A., Simmons, A., Williams, R., & Brewster, A. M. (2014). Telemedicine and telesurgery in cancer care: Inaugural conference at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Journal of surgical oncology, 110(4), 353-359.
Wolters, H. H., Köhler, S., & Brockmann, J. G. (2014). Confidence and skills for transplant surgery can be trained with hands‐on courses. Transplant International, 27(5), 36-37.
Yates, D. R., Vaessen, C., & Roupret, M. (2011). From Leonardo to da Vinci: the history of robot-assisted surgery in urology. BJU International, 108(11), 1708-1713.

REFERENCES

Caballero, J. A., Sneed, P. K., Lamborn, K. R., Ma, L., Denduluri, S., Nakamura, J. L., & McDermott, M. W. (2012). Prognostic factors for survival in patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for recurrent brain metastases after prior whole brain radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics, 83(1), 303-309.
Hockstein, N. G., Gourin, C. G., Faust, R. A., & Terris, D. J. (2007). A history of robots: from science fiction to surgical robotics. Journal of robotic surgery, 1(2), 113-118.
Lanfranco, A. R., Castellanos, A. E., Desai, J. P., & Meyers, W. C. (2004). Robotic surgery: a current perspective. Annals of surgery, 239(1), 14-21.
Satcher, R. L., Bogler, O., Hyle, L., Lee, A., Simmons, A., Williams, R., & Brewster, A. M. (2014). Telemedicine and telesurgery in cancer care: Inaugural conference at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Journal of surgical oncology, 110(4), 353-359.
Wolters, H. H., Köhler, S., & Brockmann, J. G. (2014). Confidence and skills for transplant surgery can be trained with hands‐on courses. Transplant International, 27(5), 36-37.
Yates, D. R., Vaessen, C., & Roupret, M. (2011). From Leonardo to da Vinci: the history of robot-assisted surgery in urology. BJU International, 108(11), 1708-1713.

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