Good Example Of Essay On Cardiovascular Diseases
The flow of blood to and from the heart is very systematic. Whenever there is an increase in energy demand in a certain part of the body, mainly because of elevated metabolic activity in organs or tissues, blood vessels will passively swell. This is because of the high intravascular pressure exerted into it. The metabolic processes are directed to the regulation of oxygenation. This also means that if there is an increase in any physical activities, there is also an increase in metabolic processes.When it increases, higher energy is demanded by the organs involved which are compensated by increased heart muscle contraction (Pittman, 2011).
Cardiovascular diseases are problems which affect the heart, blood vessels and all the organs connected to it. Many of these diseases go through a process called atherosclerosis. It happens when plaque develops inside the walls of arteries. Most of this plaque is built up by too much cholesterol which later narrows arteries and makes it hard for blood to flow. When no further actions are made, the blood clot may form inside the vessels that can stop blood from flowing, thus resulting to stroke or heart attacks. As mentioned earlier, atherosclerosis is formed by plaque build-up. However, it does not necessarily mean that it becomes dangerous right away. Vulnerable plaques are described as the atherosclerotic plaques which are susceptible to rupture. It is basically characterized as “those having a thin inflamed fibrous cap over a very large lipid core” (Fishbein, 2010). In studies performed in the coronary arteries, ruptures and thrombosis happens mostly in large plaques. Microcalcification, structural stress, and hemorrhage have been seen to play a role in the destabilization of atherosclerotic plaque (Assemat & Hourigan, 2013).
In the study Trends in Mortality from Myocardial Infarction, which is a comparative study between Spain and the United States from 1990 to 2006, it is said that Mediterranean countries like Spain are considered to be at low risk of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown lower mortality risks between them and Western Europe or the United States. These lowered rates have been associated to the Mediterranean Diet which is characterized as the increased consumption of fruits, legumes, vegetables, fish, cereals, and regulated drinking of red wine. In the study, men associates were observed for the Seven Countries Study to undergo the Mediterranean diet. This diet relatively showed effects of lower ischematic heart disease (IHD) in Southern European compared to Northern Europeans and US associates. Other observational studies also suggest that the Mediterranean diet is “associated with lower risk of premature mortality from ischematic heart disease” (Orozco-Beltran et al, 2012), even if consumed by non-Mediterranean nations.
The treatment of acute myocardial infarction in UK has changed from the 20th century to the 21st. This pattern is confirmed by the Monitoring Trends and Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease. IHD mortality rate rose by the late 20th century and then declined over the nations with higher income. Northern Europe showed higher steep in the rise and fall of mortality rate compared to the South. This decline of mortality is projected to be continuous for the past years. It is also possible that because of changes in epidemiological and ecological factors, a different approach must be done. It is also identified that the prevention over Northern Europe may have been pursued more aggressively resulting to the decline of IHDs, since policies that regulate factors affecting such diseases have been implemented (Moran &Odden, 2012).
Assemat, P. and Hourigan, K. (2013, April).“Evolution and rupture of vulnerable plaques: a review of mechanical effects”. Dove Press Journal.
Fishbein, M.C. (2010). “The vulnerable and unstable atherosclerotic plaque”.CardiovascPathol, 19(1).Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18835793.
Moran, A andOdden, M.C. (2012, December). “Trends in Myocardial Infarction Mortality in Spain and the United States: A Downhill or Uphill Race in the Twenty-first Century?”.Rev EspCardiol, 65(12). Retrieved from http://www.revespcardiol.org/en/trends-in-myocardial-infarction-mortality/articulo/90165381/
Orozco-Beltran, D. et al. (2012). “Trends in Mortality From Myocardial Infarction. A Comparative Study Between Spain and the United States: 1990-2006”.SociedadEspan˜ola de Cardiologı´a, Elsevier España Retrieved from http://pdf.revespcardiol.org/watermark/ctl_servlet?_f=10&pident_articulo=90165384&pident_usuario=0&pcontactid=&pident_revista=255&ty=162&accion=L&origen=cardio&web=www.revespcardiol.org&lan=en&fichero=255v65n12a90165384pdf001.pdf
Pittman R.N. (2011). “Chapter 2The Circulatory System and Oxygen Transport”.Regulation of Tissue Oxygenation. San Rafael: CA Morgan & Claypool Life Sciences.