Good Example Of Essay On Disaster Scenario Worksheet

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Pollution, Exposure, Ratio, Risk, Chemical, Cancer, Environment, Design

Pages: 2

Words: 550

Published: 2020/10/20

Part 1

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) - it recognizes the importance of preparing citizens. Its mission is to support citizens and first responders to improve the capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover and mitigate all hazards.
The Volunteers in Police Service Program (VIPS) - endorse support and provide resources for agencies whose main goal is to develop or enhance a volunteer program and for residents who are interested in offering their time and expertise with a community law administration agency. Information and resources are shared by the VIPS staff along with the law enforcement agencies that are aiming to widen their programs and as well accommodate more volunteers in the already existing programs.

Likely Environmental Contamination

The two kinds of pollution include point sources and non-point sources. Any contaminants that access the river from a single source such as a pipe or ditch form a method of pollution known as point source water pollution (Pia, 2011). On the other hand, nonpoint source pollution refers to contamination which does not originate from a single source. It forms as a result of the cumulative effect of small amounts of contaminants originating from a bigger area. A major example is the leaching out of nitrogen compounds from fertilized agricultural lands. The other form of pollution is ground water pollution. It refers to pollution that does not necessary affect surface water bodies. For example, spills of ongoing release of chemical or radionuclide contaminants into the soil.

Population At Risk of Exposure

Any person who consumes food or a drink that contains a certain level of a given chemical toxin may eventually be devastatingly affected for a given period of time. However, some groups of persons tend to be affected more by the chemical contaminants and are hence at a higher risk of being more affected by regular subjection to these chemicals. These groups make up the susceptible populations. The susceptible populations include pregnant women, infants, young children and older adults. In addition people with cancer, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS tend to have weakened immune and thus also vulnerable.

Possible environmental exposure

Exposure to environmental chemicals – exposure to high levels of chemicals such as benzene can cause cancer. In fact, studies show that exposure to lower levels of chemicals in the general environment is a major contributing factor to getting cancer. 75-80% of cancer diagnosis is accounted for by exposure to environmental carcinogens.

Appropriate Study Design

The best study design to determine whether exposures to chemicals are related to excess mortality would be experimental design. This approach corresponds to the laboratory-based research. It simply involves the studying the impact of varying a factor that can be controlled (Jekel, 2007). For example using two groups of rats and exposing one to the chemical and recording the rate at which they develop cancer.

Part 2

Risk Ratio = Cumulative incidence (exposed) / cumulative incidence (not exposed)
=0.35/ 0.12


The approximate risk of being infected with the fatal disease was 2.7 times as great among the people who had already been exposed to the harmful chemical(s) compared to those who had not had a prior exposure to the harmful chemicals (benzene).

Odds Ratio

The relative exposure distributions (65/20) and (120/135) are really odds. That is odds of exposure among cases and non-diseased controls. Computing the ratio of the two odds we get.
Odds Ratio = (65/20) / (120/135)
The fact that the odds ratio is a bit extreme to the risk ratio, it shows that the outcome is increasingly common.


Jekel .F (2007). Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Preventive Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences
Pia .M (2011). Methods in Field Epidomology. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

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Good Example Of Essay On Disaster Scenario Worksheet. Free Essay Examples - Published Oct 20, 2020. Accessed January 30, 2023.

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