Good Example Of Essay On Happiness And Neuroticism Across All Gender: A Comparative Analysis

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Study, Happiness, Gender, Education, Internet, Psychology, Neuroticism, Women

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2020/12/12

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Abstract

A study entitled Happiness and Neuroticism Across all Gender: A Comparative Analysis has been initiated to give a more specific understanding of individual differences. In this study the author would like to establish how personality traits particularly relating to happiness and neuroticism varies across gender. The aim of this study is to identify the gender that is most likely influenced by a particular type of emotion. This is to rule out the study initiated in 1994 by Alan Feingold claiming that the male population are typically ascribed with emotions relating to happiness, extroversion and assertiveness, whereas, women are more prone to neurotic behavior characterized by anxiety, moodiness and loneliness. In this particular study, the author tabulated the results of a 35-item survey participated by 62 respondents. The proponent used two measures, namely The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire to determine the dominating personality traits among gender.
Keywords: happiness, neuroticism, personality traits, gender, individual difference

Literature Review

This paper would like to establish how human social emotions as happiness and neuroticism varies across all gender. It is the assumption of this paper that emotions like happiness and neuroticism as significantly varies among gender and that emotions aligning to happiness are typically geared towards the female population while neuroticism are commonly associated with the male population.
In a study in 1994, author Alan Feingold establish that individuals vary in terms of personality . In the said study, Feingold further elaborates that distinctions in personality traits are highly distinguishable in terms of gender. In which the author the male population are more assertive and have higher esteem as compared to their female counterparts. Similarly, Feingold also noted that women have higher extroversion and neuroticisms than most men (1994, p. 432).
In 2002, a study entitled “On the Internet No One Knows I’m an Introvert”: Extroversion, Neuroticism, and Internet Interaction made a remarkable impact to users and non-users alike. The authors of the study clearly made the distinction of users according to two demographic profile –age and gender. The author of the study made a compelling discovery of how online users characterized according to gender tend to mask their true emotions and personalities while using the internet (Amichai-Hamburger, Fox, & Wainapel, 2002, pp. 126-128). Specifically, the author identified that female internet users tend to mask more that male users. Thus, making a remarkable discovery of how women tends to manifest negative emotional issues like insecurities, denial and hate. However, before the authors delved into their personal discussion of how users masked down their personalities online they quoted one study that perhaps become an influential factor in their own research. Kraut, et.al, in their study in 1998 concluded that the use of internet leads to depression and loneliness among its users particularly among women. Amichai-Hamburger, et.al, asserts that it is easy to create a different person online because the anonimity is being protected by physical proximity. Nevertheless, it was re-emphasized in this study that those who failed to accept the concept of “real-me” outside their use of the internet may develop serious psychological discorder (pp. 128).
On the other hand, personality traits cannot be restricted to hate and aggressive behavior. In fact, in another study documented in 2004 there has been numerous avenue identified as an outlet that fosters entertainment and enjoyment. One of this avenue includes the internet and non-technology based outlets like clubs, malls and even the church. The authors suggest that it has become a core to the entertainment experience because of the pleasant experiential state that the use of these platform has to offer . Similarly, the authors elaborate that the pleasurable experience of using these outlets contributes to the physiological, cognitive, and affective components of the enjoyment process (2004, p. 393). This study is supported by authors Bollen , et. al, (2011). According to to Bollen, et.al, since social networks allow for the connections of people with diverse interest which may be similar or different to the rest of their peers online and offline . Interesting facets of Bollen, et.al, study was referring to how users of online social sites can be demographically characterized by age, sex and race, but also psychological status like loneliness (2011, Abstract). Nevertheless, Bollen and associates state that it cannot be concluded whether this assortative mixing of psychological states can in fact be correlated ot linked to the absence of physical contact.

Hypothesis

Hσ1: That neuroticism is significantly higher among the male population.
Hσ2: That happiness is significantly higher among the female population.
Hσ3: That happiness is significantly correlated with neuroticism across all gender.
Hα1: That neuroticism is not significantly higher among the male population.
Hα2: That happiness is not significantly higher among the female population.
Hα3: That happiness is not significantly correlated with neuroticism across all gender.
Method
Participants
This study involved 62 participants. The participants for this study had been identified according to age and gender. Mean distribution for age was computed at 24.92 (SD = 5.851). Gender distribution of participants were spread at 41, female and 21, male.

Materials

Two measures were used for this study—The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire was used to measure neuroticism while the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to measure personal happiness.

Procedure

The participants were asked to answer the questionnaires by logging in the website http://www.polljunkie.com. The survey presented and tabulated 35 questions using the Learning Management System (LMS). The LMS is a software application responsible for the administration, documentation, tracking, reporting and delivery of electronic educational technology for the purpose of research . Seven days were allotted to complete the survey. Participants can come in and out of the system to complete the survey anytime.

Results

The survey revealed that happiness is the prevailing emotion that is developed by the use of social network site. Mean score for happiness was computed at 31.10 (SD = 7.299) compare to neuroticism whose mean score was recorded at 3.56 (SD = 1.752). This finings implies that on an overall happiness is significantly higher as far as emotions are concerned among all genders. This refers to the assumption that individuals, regardless of gender are predominantly affected by happiness or elated feelings.
According to gender, it reveals that that happiness is a prevailing emotion among male respondents with mean score of 31.52 (SD = 7.195) compared to the means for of women for happiness computed at 30.88 (SD = 7.430). On the other hand, neuroticism is prevailing among women with mean score of 3.39 (SD = 1.759) compared to the male’s mean score of 3.90 (SD = 1.729). The result was made with respect to the number of participants according to gender considering that the number of respondents per category is not equal. This findings suggest that comparatively men experiences more elated feelings as compared to women. Women, on the other hand, tends to be more vulnerable and prone to experiencing neurotic behaviors like loneliness, moodiness and anxiety.
T-test revealed that the variables happiness and neuroticism are not significant as indicated by the t-test result of t(188)=0.63, p> .05. The result of the t-test only suggest that happiness and neuroticisms are not rooted on the same spectrum of personal traits. On the other hand, the variables suggest a strong correlation with Pearson r computed at r (60)= .38, p= .003. Given the r (60) of .38, it indicates a strong correlation between neuroticism and happiness. However, according to the results of the Pearson Correlation indicated by the r (60) of .38 only suggest that both emotions of neuroticism and happiness are commonly shared by both men and women.

Discussion

Reviewing the study, it can be said that the use of the two measures allowed for a standardized matrix that could help give a credible and reliable results if utilized properly. A standardized matrix allows for verification across the disregarded because it has been tried and proven technique or assessment process. Another strength of the paper is the use of the Learning Management System (LMS) which allowed for a non-biases results. Considering that there is the absence of direct, face-to-face communication and interaction, manipulating the result of the data will not be an issue. This will thereby assure a non-partisan result.
On the other hand, there were also some downside with this study. Given that the aim of the paper is to compare the significant variation or distinction between human emotions across gender, the selected approach which subject the survey should be classified according to gender has been overlooked. After submitting the completed online survey, the system failed to keep a record of all the questionnaires label and identified according to gender. This makes it difficult to assert whether gender difference play a crucial role in the results that were generated from the t-test and the Pearson r.

References

Amichai-Hamburger, Y., Fox, S., & Wainapel, G. (2002). “On the Internet No One Knows I’m an Introvert”: Extroversion, Neuroticism, and Internet Interaction. CyberPscyhology and Behavior, 125-128.
Bollen, J., Gonçalves, B., Ruan, G., & Mao, H. (2011, March 11). Happiness is assortative in online social networks. Retrieved from Massachusetts Institute of Technology Website: http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1162/artl_a_00034
Brannon, R. (2012, November 7). Chapter 7: Gender Stereotypes: Masculinity and Femininity. Retrieved from Feminish Website: http://www.feminish.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Brannon_ch07.pdf
Ellis, R. (2012, July 6). A Field Guide to Learning Management System. Retrieved from https://www.td.org/~/media/Files/Publications/LMS_fieldguide_20091
Feingold, A. (1994). Gender Differences in Personality: A Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 429-456.
Furnham, A., & Brewin, C. (1990). Personality and happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 1093-1096.
Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukopadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: a social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist, 1017-1031.
NCBP. (2000). Gender Equality, Development and Peace for the Twenty-first Century. Danka: NGO Committee on Beijing Plus Five in Bangladesh.
Psaltis, C., & Duveen, G. (2006). Social relations and cognitive development: The influence of conversation type and representations of gender. European Journal of Social Psychology, 407–430.
Smee, S., & Woodroffe, J. (2013, January 17). Achieving Gender Equality and Achieving Women Empowerment in the Post-Framework. Retrieved January 7, 2015, from http://www.gadnetwork.org/storage/Achieving%20gender%20equality%20and%20women's%20empowerment%20in%20the%20post%202015%20framework.pdf
Tiedens, L. (2001). Anger and Advancement Versus Sadness and Subjugation: The Effect of Negative Emotion Expressions on Social Status Conferral. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 86-94.
Vorderer, P., Klimmt, C., & Ritterfeld, U. (2004). Enjoyment: At the Heart of Media Entertainment. International Communication Association , 388–408.

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