Good Example Of Research Paper On The Impact Abraham Lincoln Had During The Civil War And The Resulting Emancipation Of Slaves
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This essay explores the role of the sixteenth US president Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War and afterwards. The struggle between North and South were among the causes of the war. The research shows that the war gave development to a free society and the emancipation of slaves. The North and South were two different societies with different cultures and vision. The production of cotton increased, but the importing of slaves that was banned in 1808(Rothman, 2009). However, the planters of the South brutally suppressed the uprisings of slaves (Rothman, 2009). An intelligent and cautious politician, Lincoln had enemies before he joined the Republican Party in 1854(Rothman, 2009). He understood that steep measures can lead to war. Thus, Lincoln chose to find a peaceful solution to prevent war, the South did not come around to accepting the inevitability of freeing slaves. Becoming president of the United States, he had no experience. Nonetheless, the Homestead Acts and the Emancipation of the slaves signed by Lincoln were a generous contribution to the freedom of the individual in the United States.
How Abraham Lincoln was able to overcome the slave system, at what price he was given this achievement and what role it played in American and world history?
Lincoln believed that slavery is an evil, unavoidable in the South of the country's existing economic conditions. The question of slavery he referred to the competence of the state and believed that the government does have a constitutional right to interfere in with slavery. The price of achieving this was the Lincoln had to go to war, thus starting the Civil War, but it once and for all put an end to the system of slavery in America. But at the same time gave rise to many problems: interracial conflicts and inability to yesterday's slaves and their owners to live in the same area.
At the beginning of the second half of the 18th century from 19-million population of America, as many as four million were slaves. At this time, in 1860, the 16th president Abraham Lincoln becomes a national hero and liberator of American slaves. The reason was the different ways of development of the regions. Virtually every state had an independent policy. The North took the path of capitalism, but the South remained in the way of slavery and the agrarian economy.
The North sought to get the majority of immigrants and entrepreneurs, as they are focused mills and factories. South also received a huge free territory after the Mexican-American War, with a favorable climate for agriculture, which required a large labor force. It is worth noting that the original purpose of the war was not the abolition of slavery, and the restoration of the union of all the states. However, by the end of the war, Lincoln realizes that without the abolition of slavery, it is impossible. In addition, it should be done not gradually, will require but radical methods.
Preparing for the abolition of the implemented throughout 1862. December 30, 1862, the president signed "Emancipation Proclamation”. The document gave impetus to the adoption of Amendment XIII (1865) to the US Constitution. Proclamation been rightly criticized by radical Republicans, since the emancipation of slaves was carried out where it is not distributed power of the federal government, but it has changed the nature of the Civil War, turning it into a war for the abolition of slavery. In addition, it has forced foreign countries, including the UK not support the Confederacy. British Prime Minister could not organize intervention because of the resistance of the public. Emancipation of slaves allowed recruiting African Americans in the army. By the end of the war in federal troops there were 180,000 blacks (Hanchett 76).
In May 1863 130-strong army of the Union was defeated by 60 thousandth army of General Lee. Northerners retreated, and the Confederates, beating Washington to the north, came to Pennsylvania. In this situation, the importance of the outcome of the acquired three-day battle at Gettysburg, during which killed more than 50,000 people. Lee army defeated and retreated to Virginia. July 4 on the Western Front after many days of siege and two unsuccessful assaults General Grant captured Vicksburg fortress. July 8 was taken in Port Hudson, Louisiana. Thus was established control over the valley of the Mississippi River, and the Confederation split into two parts. November 19, 1863 The opening ceremony of the Gettysburg National Cemetery, where the dead were buried by the participants of the battle. During the opening of the Lincoln Memorial gave one of his most famous speeches, once again confirmed his outstanding oratorical talent. (Rife & Smith 57). December 1863, Lincoln promised amnesty to all rebels, provided take the oath of allegiance to the United States and the adoption of the abolition of slavery. The year ended with a victory at Chattanooga.
Lincoln was a man who led the country from severe crisis, rallying supporters of the country's unity and destruction slavery. Assessing the merits of Lincoln, the great Russian writer Leo Tolstoy said: "It was what Beethoven was in music, in poetry of Dante, Raphael in painting, Christ in the philosophy of life" (Freedman, “Lincoln: A Photobiography”).
Among the prominent politicians of the world, a special place is accorded to the sixteenth US president Abraham Lincoln. His presidency lasted during the American Civil War, which lasted from 1861 to 1865 and claimed the lives of more than 600 thousand Americans (Ward, Burns & Burns, 2011). The Civil War was the most prominent event in US history, and Abraham Lincoln is a central historical figure in the minds of most, if not all, Americans. With his towering personality and speeches, Lincoln focused on the main features of American democracy, which strengthened his presidency. Following the Civil War, Americans raised in unity of the nation and as a free society, free of slavery, and in symbol of a great democratic experiment (Ward et al., 2011).
Slavery stood, no doubt, in the center of the struggle between North and South, but it was not the sole cause of the war (Domar, 1970). The economic, political and ideological and cultural factors contacted in intractable problems that could not be solved through agreements and compromises. Within 20 years of the 18th century the United States held captive "market revolution" which transformed all areas of life, but had different effects in the South and the North(Domar, 1970). Northeast and Northwest soon bound complex and diversified economy in which agriculture is gradually yielded to industrialization and trade. The increasing demand for labor covered primarily due to relocation from Europe, and the number of people living in cities in 1850, close to a limit of five million(Domar, 1970).
The expansion and commercialization also determined how the South, strived forward . Cotton, which prevailed here as a monoculture, contributed to the character of the region while it remained agricultural (Domar, 1970). Planters think and act like entrepreneurs on the principles of supply, demand and profit. Slaves were for them both labor and capital; a "resource" that during the cotton boom was becoming more and more poor. Since the production of cotton can be increased only by increasing the cultivated area, the plantation owners regarded all attempts to restrict the territorial slavery as a mortal danger to their social and economic system. They even put pressure on Washington to ban in 1808, the importation of slaves (Newman, 2002). Culturally, the South remained in power for the past and therefore there was a peculiar mixture of paternalistic and democratic elements. The white population of the southern states, rich and poor, all closely rally to protect their traditional values and ideals, southern lifestyle of the threat they perceived individualistic and egalitarian society of the North. The positive values in the South and enrolled slavery, contrasted exploitative "wage slavery" of the North as a humane institution (Newman, 2002). Launched in the north-religious reformist zeal with which many people react to rapid social transformation, more directed to the evil of slavery in the southern states. At the end of 50 years of the 18th century in union opposed two different societies, two cultures and two visionaries who could not hold back any longer.
Abraham Lincoln came to be the President of the US when the debate between North and South regarding slavery and the issues surrounding it has become volatile. As the President of US, Lincoln had the bear the brunt of the problems between the North and South. This, he became the central figure in the ensuing Civil War, the preservation of US as an united nation, and the abolition of slavery.
Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809 in Kentucky, the son of a poor farmer (McPherson, 1991). All his well-being depended on the piece of land on which to work Abraham's parents, Thomas and Nancy Lincoln. Since childhood, Abraham used to work, helping his parents cultivate the land, hunting and gathering wild berries. Lincoln has achieved everything in life through his own efforts. Starting at age 21 independent life, he tried many professions. Nature endowed Lincoln a bright appearance. Tremendous growth, with unusually long arms and legs, his figure stood out in any crowd (Carwardine, 2007).
The first steps in politics Lincoln did in 1834 when he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the State of Illinois, having different political school, and to gain prestige among his colleagues (Carwardine, 2007). In 1836, Lincoln successfully completed a complex exam and got the right to practice law. Becoming a lawyer, he moved to the city of Springfield, Illinois. Lincoln for the first time started earning well. To do this he had to practice not only in Springfield, but throughout the judicial district (Carwardine, 2007). Every spring and autumn he drove hundreds of miles to the sparsely populated plains of one village to another, figuring in litigation farmers. The cases for the most part were small and the fees for them small as well. Deep knowledge of jurisprudence and unselfishness got Lincoln fame in the state of Illinois.
The next step in the political career of Abraham Lincoln became his election to the US House of Representatives in 1847(Striner, 2006). Opposing US aggression in Mexico and policy President Polk, Lincoln made many political enemies. It was in that the United States at that time had an active policy of seizing land of adjacent countries, especially Mexico. With arms and money in first half of the 19th century, the US increased its territory by 3.5 times. Most of the US population supported such government action. Lincoln, being an opponent of the war, strongly opposed the US-led invasion in Mexico (Seymour, 2012). The return of the congress to Springfield marked the onset of the worst period in Lincoln's life: he lost political popularity, his law practice significantly decreased, and there were large debts,but over the next three to four years through perseverance and knowledge Lincoln became a leading lawyer in Illinois (Striner, 2006). Traveling to court constituency, he regained his former popularity. An unsuccessful showdown in Congress did not make Lincoln refuse political activity. He did not intend to limit himself to lawyer work and joined the Republican party, February 25, 1854 (Striner, 2006). At this time, the political struggle within the US was around the issue of undeveloped land in the west of the country and the territories captured by others countries.
However, the question of vacant land was only part of the more complex and important issues for the United States determining the future of the US as a whole. It developed into capitalist forms of property since the alternative will be the upper hand plantation-slave system management. The question of slavery is very serious. The whole civilized world has condemned it and the slave trade is prohibited. US is so proud of its democracy, but continued to secretly buy slaves and bring them into the country. African-Americans never reconciled with this terrible situation. They rebelled, and fled to the North, but the planters of the South brutally suppressed the uprising, and arranged capture for the slaves who escaped the raid, (Striner, 2006). In 1850, White Southerners won the right to hunt for runaway slaves throughout the country. Progressive people sympathized with the struggle of blacks and advocated the abolition of slavery in the United States (Striner, 2006).
Abraham Lincoln was opposed to slavery. 18-year-old boy was in Lincoln New Orleans, this major center of the slave South. He was shocked by the fact that the city market people are selling like animals. But as a politician, he understood that attempts to steep measures to end the shameful phenomenon only lead to war and the disintegration of the state. Therefore, in his political statements he was extremely careful. Lincoln was confident in the possibility of a peaceful solution to the dispute between North and South. In his heart he hoped that if slavery would be limited. Only the southern states, then it is itself gradually wither away.
Speaking in various parts of the country, Lincoln proved himself as an intelligent and cautious politician. He did not immediately support the demand for the abolition of slavery and sought in every way to prevent civil war (Striner, 2006). However, as the issues became compounded around slavery, Lincoln was unwavering in his support for abolition of slavery (Stringer, 2006) despite a difficult struggle with the Democratic candidate, supported by the slaveholders of the South. During the election, Lincoln showed restraint and the ability to avoid extremes managed to convince voters and won the election November 6, 1860, becoming president of the United States(Striner, 2006). Republican election triggered the separation of eight slaveholding states that have declared February 4, 1861 on the establishment of an independent state - Confederate States of America, with its capital in Richmond, elected as its President Jefferson Davis. Lincoln was in a difficult position. He had no prior experience in managing the country, but had to lead the Nation at a difficult time. Lincoln wanted to convince slaveholders to abandon the idea of splitting the Union. Meanwhile, the circumstances demanded swift and decisive action. Two days later, Lincoln proclaimed the Confederate states in rebellion and addressed to "all loyal citizens" to speak out to protect countries. In the army came 75 th. Volunteers. The Civil War between North and South. At first, Lincoln thought that northerners will be able to quickly defeat the slaveholders. Indeed, the northern states over a large area, there lived a large of the citizens of the country, they had a well-developed industry. But the North did was not ready for war. Many army officers - came from the southern states - the beginning War went over to the slave owners. In addition, the northern states there were many supporters of the Confederacy, in every way harm the troops government. So the experience of running the country and the army came to the president Lincoln through the bitterness of defeat and failure. April 12, 1865 in the city Appamotoks ceremony of delivery of weapons southerners. Bringing order Lincoln started with the government. His benevolence, fairness to opponents, poise, humor and generosity allowed to create a good working government, consisting of both supporters emancipation the slaves, and of those who are inclined toward reconciliation with slaveholders.
Another challenge was to create a strong army. Lincoln drew attention to talented general Ulysses S. Grant, and appointed him commander Army northerners. Together with other capable generals - Sherman, Sheridan, Thomas - Grant was able to hold a large joint offensive against the southern states. President Lincoln proved himself as an excellent diplomat. On board the British ship "Trent" two diplomats Confederation went to Britain and France, to persuade the Europeans to assist the South. However, the British ship was detained northerners and southerners arrested messengers. Government Britain regarded the action as an insult to the northerners. Lincoln understood that the performance of the British side of the South is unacceptable, and freed diplomats. The threat of war with Great Britain disappeared. Lincoln and this attracted many northerners in the army people who wanted to gain ground, and laid the foundations of modern American farming. Another law, signed by Lincoln January 1, 1863, was famous Emancipation Proclamation Negro slaves. Lincoln feared that in the case of the complete abolition of slavery in the rebel states may join those slave states that did not come from the Union. But when civil war rapidly rolled to his completion and the victory of the North was obvious, on the initiative of Lincoln was adopted by the 13th Amendment to the US Constitution, prohibition of slavery forever. Homestead Acts and the emancipation of the slaves - an outstanding contribution to Lincoln development of a genuine freedom of the individual in the United States. President of his own example demonstrated respect for human dignity. Lincoln knew and loved his people, and American citizens responded to it universal support. April 9, 1865 Confederate troops under the command of General Robert E. Lee surrendered. The American Civil War ended, but President became one of the latest victims of this bloody war. April 14 1865, when the country celebrated the victory in Washington at Ford's Theater, Abraham Lincoln was shot in the head. Death of Abraham Lincoln literally shocked the world.
Abraham Lincoln knew and loved his people. He was a very poor family and his life's journey experienced many difficulties before take the presidency. He proved himself a fine politician, lawyer, and friendly, just to opponents and criticism, balanced president. The Emancipation Proclamation black slaves had praised Lincoln and Lincoln said? "If my name ever gets in history, by this act, and it - my whole soul" (Douglas & Smith, 1997). Thanks to him, the Americans kept the integrity of the state, was the abolition of slavery, distribution Homestead. Retaining only one state, the United States could in consequence become a leading power in the world.
Thus, as stated in the thesis, Lincoln believed that slavery is evil and that the government does have a constitutional right to interfere in abolishing slavery. ThIn the course of achieving it, Lincoln had to go to war, thus starting the Civil War. However, the Civel War did put an end to the system of slavery in America. Removing slavery gave rise to many other problems such as interracial conflicts and inability of yesterday's slaves and their owners to live in the same area. Some of the racial issues remain among some people in some parts of the US to this day.
Carwardine, R. (2007). Lincoln: A life of purpose and power. New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.
Daugherty, J., G S. Boritt. (2013). Lincoln's Gettysburg address: A pictorial interpretation painted by James Daugherty. Chicago: Albert Whitman & Co.
Domar, E. D. (1970). The causes of slavery or serfdom: a hypothesis. The Journal of Economic History, 30(01), 18-32.
Douglas M. & Smith B. (1997). Gettysburg address. Carthage, IL: Teaching & Learning.
Hanchett, W. (1989). The Lincoln murder conspiracies. Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
McPherson, J. (1991). Abraham Lincoln and the second American revolution. New York: Oxford University Press.
Newman, R. S. (2002). The transformation of American abolitionism: Fighting slavery in the early republic. Univ of North Carolina Press.
Rothman, A. (2009). Slavery and National Expansion in the United States. OAH Magazine of History, 23(2), 23-29.
Seymour, R. (2012). American Insurgents: A Brief History of American Anti-imperialism. Haymarket Books.
Striner, R. (2006). Father Abraham: Lincoln's relentless struggle to end slavery. New York: Oxford University Press.
Ward, G. C., Burns, K., & Burns, R. (2011). The Civil War: an illustrated history. Alfred a Knopf Incorporated.
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