Good Molar Pregnancies AND Their Effects On The Male Partner Article Review Example

Type of paper: Article Review

Topic: Pregnancy, Molar, Women, Study, Disorders, Psychology, Anxiety, Partner

Pages: 5

Words: 1375

Published: 2023/02/22

As I was reviewing various scientific journals for an interesting article to write the review report, an article published in Psycho-Oncology attracted my attention. The article is entitled “The impact of molar pregnancy on the male partner” and it was written by J. A. Quinlivan, K. A. Ung and R. W Petersen, and appeared in Psycho‐Oncology, 21(9), 970-976 (Quinlivan, Ung and Petersen, 2012).

Why was the topic chosen?

One of the reasons for choosing this particular article was personal in nature. I had a molar pregnancy after giving birth to two healthy children. I was extremely distraught and remember the time being extremely stressful. However, the primary reason for choosing the article relates to the study objective of exploring the impact of molar pregnancy on the male partner. While dealing with the aftermath of molar pregnancy, I was facing my partner husband totally distraught, incommunicative, and highly anxious. We were not certain if my partner’s problems relate to my going through molar pregnancy. Our search for answers from healthcare professionals or medical literature produced no results. Thus, this study is of high interest to me because it explored molar pregnancy from the perspective its impact and effects on the male partner. The study is timely and important given that there was, as the authors state, there was only a single study of 27 subjects in the scientific literature that explored the outcomes of partners in molar pregnancy (Wenzel, et al., 1992). Since the study highlights the traumatic effects of the molar pregnancy on male partners, a subject close to my heart and psychological emotions, I chose this topic.

What is the purpose of the peer reviewed research study?

The purpose of the peer reviewed research study is to find out how the male partner is affected by the molar pregnancy. Molar pregnancy is a physical disorder that affects the woman during her apparent pregnancy. However, even though it is only the woman who is physically affected by the problem, both partners tend to be emotionally, mentally and psychologically affected. This study particularly explores the affects of the molar pregnancy on the male partner.

What is the problem statement?

The problem statement is that molar pregnancy can affect the male partners negatively as well. It has to be noted that a molar pregnancy is described as a “fake pregnancy.” This is when a woman gets impregnated and the tissue that are support to become a fetus start to grow into an abnormal growth in the woman’s uterus. The growth is not an embryo; however, it starts to present all the symptoms of a pregnancy to the woman. This means that the woman starts to think that she is pregnant and this can cause several problems, both physically and mentally. Physically, it is an abnormal growth that must be removed. Mentally, the couple starts to get happy about the pregnancy; they start planning for a new baby, only to find out that it is not a baby but an abnormal growth. This can have various traumatic effects on both partners, such as anxiety, depression, sadness, etc.
It is extremely important for the women to have their molar pregnancy treated as soon as it is diagnosed. Treatment means the removal of the abnormal growth as soon as possible. If the tissue is not promptly removed, it can cause many complications in the women. It is believed that molar pregnancies are a result of faulty genetic information that is present on either the egg or the sperm (Tomizawa & Sasaki, 2012). Molar pregnancies can either be partial or complete (Vargas et al., 2013). In partial molar pregnancy, the egg is fertilized by two sperms causing the placenta to grow abnormally. The fetus that results from this type of fertilization is likely to develop severe defects. In a complete molar pregnancy, the egg that is fertilizes does not have any genetic information, which means that it does not develop into a fetus but only grows into an abnormal growth. It has been noted that several factors can increase the risk of having molar pregnancy, which includes the woman being of an older age (more than 35) when the pregnancy occurs. Moreover, if a woman has had a history of molar pregnancies, it increases the risk of her having more future molar pregnancies. Women with a history of miscarriages are also at a higher risk. A diet that is low in carotene – a form of vitamin A – is also often associated with increased risks of molar pregnancies.

What is the design or method of the study?

The design of the study was a postal survey that was sent to the women in the form of a questionnaire. The women were asked to invite their partners to participate in the survey as well. Some of the women in the sample had all been listed on the state molar pregnancy database and they were all receiving active follow up. A few women were also randomly selected who had registered in the previous 30 years.

What is the sample size?

The sample size included 102 women who had been listed on the state molar pregnancy database and are receiving active follow up and 56 women who had been registered with the same database in the past 30 years. Out of these 158 women, 66 gave permission for their partners to participate in the study. Of the 66 partners who were sent the survey questionnaire, 62% (41 subjects) responded to study survey. Thus, the final sample size essentially involved 41 male partner subjects and they formed the basis for results presented in the paper.

What is the data collection method?

After being approved by the institutional ethics committee as well as the consent of the individuals participating in the study, the questionnaires were posted to the participants. The questionnaires included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale and Sexual History Form 12. The partners who responded to the questionnaires were asked to provide any comment that they might have with respect to any of the concerns that they had felt with regards to the subject matter. The researchers also sent out a reminder mail after 6 weeks of the initial questionnaire.

What are the results or conclusions?

Out of the 66 male partners that had the permission to participate in the study from their female counterparts, only 41 subjects responded, thus making the response rate to be 62%. The main finding of the research was that 32.5% of the men met the criteria for anxiety disorder and 12.5% of the men fulfilled the criteria for depressive disorder. Comparing the prevailing community rates for anxiety disorder suggested that male partners who had faced molar pregnancy were twice as likely to face anxiety disorders. However, the overall quality of life and sexual functioning outcomes of these men were similar to those in the community. The couples that had children before the molar pregnancy were found to be able to cope much better in terms of psychological distress. In qualitative responses, anxiety was also determined as the dominant theme amongst the male partners with respect to molar pregnancies. The researchers were able to conclude that high levels of anxiety can be found in the male partners of women who have had an instance of molar pregnancy in their lives. The researchers recommended therapy for the anxiety disorders to help the couples get back to their normal functioning lives.

How is the article related to your practice?

With molar pregnancies prevailing to occur 1 in every 200-2000 pregnancies (Quinlivan, Ung, & Petersen, 2012), it is imperative that I am bound to come across a few, if not many, patients, particularly in obstetrics and gynecological care setting. The article, having identified anxiety as a major factor for male partners of molar pregnancies, helps me in guiding them to seek professional therapy for anxiety. The article also made me realize that molar pregnancies can affect male partners and I intend to make inquiries if that is the case as and when I face patients with molar pregnancies. Overall, the article improved my understanding of molar pregnancies and prepared me well to handle them in practice.


Quinlivan, J. A., Ung, K. A., & Petersen, R. W. (2012). The impact of molar pregnancy on the male partner. Psycho‐Oncology, 21(9), 970-976.
Tomizawa, S. I., & Sasaki, H. (2012). Genomic imprinting and its relevance to congenital disease, infertility, molar pregnancy and induced pluripotent stem cell. Journal of human genetics, 57(2), 84-91.
Vargas, R., Barroilhet, L. M., Esselen, K., Diver, E., Bernstein, M., Goldstein, D. P., & Berkowitz, R. S. (2013). Subsequent pregnancy outcomes after complete and partial molar pregnancy, recurrent molar pregnancy, and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: an update from the New England Trophoblastic Disease Center. The Journal of reproductive medicine, 59(5-6), 188-194.
Wenzel, L., Berkowitz, R., Robinson, S., Bernstein, M., & Goldstein, D. (1992). The psychological, social, and sexual consequences of gestational trophoblastic disease. Gynecol Oncol, 46(1), 74-81.

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