Plautus - Roman Theater Activist, Author Of Many Comedies, The Content Of Which Was Influenced By Greek Culture. Essay Samples
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The Etruscans - the ancient tribes that inhabited in the 1st millennium BC. On the north-west of the peninsula - a region called the ancient Etruria (modern Tuscany). The Etruscans - the creators of civilization that preceded the Roman and was on her considerable influence. The origin of the Etruscans is unclear. Probably, the formation of the Etruscans was completed by the 8th century BC. Their influence in the 6th century BC spread almost the whole of Italy. But the period of Etruscan power was not long: the Greeks in 524 and 474 BC defeated them at Kum, putting an end to their domination of the Sea, the Romans drove about 509 of Tarquinia. Then Samnites tribes drove the Etruscans from Campania (about 5 in.). About 400 of them Po ownership been invaded by the Gauls. Lack of Etruscan political and military unity has led to the fact that in the wars with Rome, they gradually lost their city (in the 396 Veii fell - the city that was nearly as powerful as Rome, in 358, under Roman domination fallen city Caere; in 308- Tarquinia). On the 310, the Romans began the conquest of Central and Eastern Etruria, and by 282 BC Depending on the position of Rome was the whole Etruria.
Twelve Tables - 451-449 BCE. e. - codification of the nation state law (lex publica) in ancient Rome. Twelve Tables were set up a special committee of 10 people (decemviri legibus scribundis) and regulate virtually all areas of life (in legal terms - actions / events that took place all the time).
Tribune of the plebs - (lat. Tribuni plebis) – in Ancient Rome the highest elected official of the plebeians (from the beginning of V century BC). Tribune of the Plebs had the right to impose a ban (veto) to the decisions of magistrates and the Senate. Elected annually by the plebeian assemblies (in the amount of 2, 4 and then 10 persons). Personality of Tribune was considered to be sacrosanct. During the Empire it lost its former importance.
Carthage - the ancient city-state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast near present-day Tunis, founded in the ninth century BC by Phoenicians from Tyre. It is very important commercial and political center. Carthage power peak reached in the third century BC In the same century engaged in a series of wars with Rome, which ended with the destruction of the city in 146 BC After decades of Carthage was reborn as a Roman colony. After the conquest of North Africa by the Arabs in the seventh century. The city began to lose its importance and finally deserted.
Hannibal - Carthaginian military and political leader, who is considered to be one of the greatest generals of antiquity. During his life was the main enemy of the Roman Republic.
Spartacus - gladiator, the leader of the slaves in the Slave Third War, the great slave uprising against the Roman Republic. Little is known about Spartacus War events, historical information, preserved, sometimes contradictory in its structure and can’t always be reliable. Spartacus was an experienced commander, his army consisted only of escaped gladiators and slaves, and defeated in several battles experienced Roman legions.
Lucretius - roman poet and philosopher-materialist. In his works, coming under the influence of Hellenic atomists, reflected on the number of worlds in space. Posted by a single, which reached us, philosophical poem "On the Nature of Things."
Gaius Marius - Roman general and statesman, leader of popularity. Seven times was elected to the consuls, including five consecutive 104 - 100 BC. e. reorganized the Roman army.
Mithridates of Pontus - (132 - 63 BC), king of Pontus. Fought with the Scythians; suppressed the uprising of Savmak in Bosporus. Obeying all the Black Sea coast. In the war with Rome was defeated and killed himself.
Marcus Crassus - the Roman commander, member of the first triumviratora winner Spartacus, one of the richest people of Rome. With Pompey and Julius Caesar, Crassus created the first triumvirate, to seize power in Rome.
Second Triumvirate - In October 43 BC Mark Antony, Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, united against the murderers of Julius Caesar - Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus, accompanied by troops met on the river near the city of Reno Bononia in Northern Italy and signed an agreement known as the Second Triumvirate. This union lasted 43 to 36 (formally until 31 BC), and was, in contrast to the First Triumvirate, approved by the comitia, and the triumvirs received emergency powers "for the device of public affairs." Thus, the second triumvirate was not just individual agreement (the first), a public law body (usually referred to as an extraordinary master).
Augustus - first Roman emperor (27 BC. e.). With the victory in 31 BC over the Roman general Mark Antony and the Egyptian queen Cleopatra he finished the Civil War (43-31 BC), which began after the death of Caesar. Concentrated in the hands of dictatorial power, retaining the traditional republican institutions, launching a new form of social organization "Principate".
Vespasian - Roman Emperor from 20 December 69 (troops proclaimed July 1) on 79 years, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, one of the most active and successful princeps in the Roman history I century. Cognomen "Vespasian" received (as legend has it) is not because of his favorite activities - breeding bees, and from his mother - Vespasia Polla. His older brother - Titus Flavius Sabinus fully inherited his father's name, and Vespasian - the second son, was named cognomen of his mother.
Trajan - Roman Emperor of Antonine dynasty (from January 28, 98). Grand Pontiff from 98. Period of his rule is meant to be one of the best eras of the Roman Empire, therefore Trajan is believed to be one of the best governors of Rome.
Virgil - the greatest poet of ancient Rome and one of the greatest poets of ancient literature, the author of the epic "Aeneid", celebrating the legendary origin of the Roman people.
Ovid - the last of the poets "golden age" of Roman literature, whose works had a significant impact on later medieval European literature and in our time.
Ptolemy - Greek scientist (mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer), whose works had a great influence on the development of astronomy, geography and optics. Created geocentric system of the world, has developed a mathematical theory of planetary motion around a stationary Earth, which allows to calculate their location in the sky. The system of Ptolemy described in his main work "Almagest" - astronomy encyclopedia of ancient world.
Visigoths - branch of the Goths. The Visigoths first appeared in history as a separate tribe in the year 268, when the Roman Empire invaded the Balkan Peninsula.
Diocletian - Roman Emperor from November 20 to May 1 284 305. The arrival of Diocletian finished crisis of the Roman Empire III century and led to the strengthening of the Emperor.
Pharisees - religious and social movement in Judea in the time of the Second Temple, one of the three Hebrew schools of philosophy that emerged in the heyday of the Maccabees (II c. BC. e.), although the emergence of the doctrine of the Pharisees can be attributed to the time of Ezra. The doctrine of the Pharisees is the basis of Halacha and modern Orthodox Judaism.
New Testament - holy book of Christianity, of the Bible, written by Christian holy ancient Greek language (dialect Koine). According to some sources, the Gospel of Matthew was first created in Aramaic. For Christians, all of the New Testament Bible is God's Word, which, though written by people are inspired.
Jesus - The central figure in Christianity, according to Christian teaching, the Messiah, the Savior and Redeemer of mankind from the yoke of sin. Most of those who consider themselves Christians believe that God (God the Son in the Holy Trinity), who became incarnate as a man to give salvation to mankind. According to the Muslim faith is one of the greatest prophets.
St. Benedict - founder of the Benedictine Order, and is believed to be the whole of Western monasticism, the chief patron of Europe.
St. Ambrose - Christian saint, bishop of Milan, a prominent Christian theologian, preacher.
St. Augustine - Christian theologian and church leader, Chief Representative of Western patristic, Bishop of Hippo town reggae, founder of the Christian philosophy of history.
Theodora - Byzantine empress, wife of Emperor Justinian I. had a great influence on the religious and political life of the Byzantine Empire middle of the VI century. The most famous owner of the name. Christian Church revered as a saint.
Struggle of the Orders - more than 200 years long struggle with the primitive survivals and plebeians did not stop to seek equal rights with the patricians. But it was clear that military democracy as a form of government in the period of the schedule and tribal government outlived itself forever. Evidence of persistent struggle between the old and the new regime, the old and new relationships are saving sometime after the reforms of Servius Tullius royal power.
Plebeian - humble, free people of ancient Rome, which was not in the tribal community and had no right to land and political rights as opposed to the patricians. Originally only patricians were "Roman people." The plebeians could not marry the patricians, they are not elected to public office, they did not receive their share of land in the occupied territories of the division was not included in the tribe, that they could not be part of the ancient tribes and considered "the Roman people." Also they did not have any education.
Consul - the highest electoral council in the days of the Republic. This post was collegial, that was just the two consuls, elected annually and they ruled together. However, after the establishment of the Empire consuls were only symbolic representatives of the republican heritage, having lost much of its power and authority, while the emperor was supreme ruler.
Legionnaires - military basic organizational unit in the army of ancient Rome. Legion consisted of 5-6 thousand. (In later periods - up to 8 thousand.) Marines and several hundred riders. Each legion had your number and name. According to written sources, preserved, identified about 50 different legions. At the head of the Legion during the Republic was a military tribune, during the Empire - legate.
Cannae - the greatest battle of the Second Punic War, which occurred on August 2 216 BC at Cannes in Apulia in southeast Italy.
Tiberius Gracchus - he won election to the podium and proposed law (lex agraria), which was determined by the higher rate of ownership of public land (ager publicus) - namely, 500 Jugerum per person (Jugerum = 1/4 acres), and if the owner has children, then share everyone else 250 Jugerum more - however, no more than 1000 Jugerum per family. Created as a result of this rule from existing segments by the time large estates had come into the treasury for distribution plots 30 Jugerum landless citizens in terms of hereditary lease.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla - Roman general, consul of 88 BC. In 84 defeated Mithridates VI. After his win over Gaius Marius in the civil war began dictator in 82 BC, conducted mass repressions. In 79 BC resigned.
First Triumvirate - political union in ancient Rome as part of Gaius Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey the Great and Marcus Licinius Crassus.
Pompey the Great - Roman statesman and general, consul of the Roman Republic 70, 55 and 52-second period BC, the commander of troops loyal to the Senate in the Civil War years 49-45 BC. He began his career by fighting on the side of Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the civil war years 83-82 BC. e., successfully commanded troops in Italy, Sicily, Africa and Spain. In 70 BC was one of the initiators of the abolition of the laws of Sulla. In the 60s BC. Pompeii was one of the most influential people in Rome, clearing the Mediterranean Sea from pirates and expanding Roman influence in the east during the Third Mithridatic War.
Battle of Actium - the last great naval battle of antiquity. The decisive battle between the fleets of Mark Antony and Octavian completed the civil war in Rome. Forces commanded by Marcus Agrippa Octavian, Antony performed ally Egyptian queen Cleopatra. The ancient message of this battle is probably not entirely objective, most of them says that critical moment Cleopatra fled with all his fleet and sailed to Egypt, and Anthony set off for her. However, the main goal that set out to Anthony, entering the battle could be an attempt to break the siege, but this plan was implemented poorly, broke a minority of the fleet and land army without a fight Anthony moved to the side of Octavian why preceded probably talks to battle. Octavian won a decisive victory, has unconditional authority over the Romans and eventually became the first Roman emperor (27 BC under the name Augustus).
Julio-Claudians dynasty - first imperial dynasty in ancient Rome, who ruled from 27 BC to 68 years CE, consisting of several Roman families, the most important of which was the patrician gens Claudia. Throughout their appearance Claudian era society is represented in the full sense of elitism, and their policy was clearly expressed aristocratic politics.
Masada - ancient fortress on the cliff near the desert of Judea, located near the Israeli city of Arad.
Hadrianus - the Roman emperor since August 11, 117, the Antonine dynasty. For his reign characterized by further centralization of state institutions. At the head of the imperial offices instead Otpushchennikov were horsemen system was abolished Farm based state Mail issued "Permanent edict" (Lat. Edictum perpetuum) legal rules on the use of the Roman community to tribes and nations that became part of the Roman Empire.
Livy - one of the most famous Roman historians, the author often cited "Stories from the foundation of the city" and the historical and philosophical dialogues and rhetorical work epistolary form to his son, who did not survive.
Tacticus - Roman historian. Major works that have survived, "Agricola" - a typical representative of a new biography serving nobility, military leader and father in law of Tacitus; "Germany" - an essay of social organization, religion and way of life of the Germanic tribes; "Dialogue of speakers"; "History" - highlights the life of Rome and the empire in 69-96 years and "Annals" (Tacitus worked on them until death).
Mithraism - mysterious religious cult that has developed around the god Mithras, spread in the Roman army in the I-IV centuries BC. Proponents of the cult created a complex system of initiation, which included seven stages of initiation and ritual meal.
Huns - nomadic people who had invaded the 70s of IV century from Asia to Eastern Europe. The hypothesis of the origin of the Huns from Central Asian nation Xiongnu mentioned in previous time in Chinese sources, adopted by the majority of scientists. Hunnic language According to many researchers attribute to the Turkic family.
Constantine - Roman Emperor, the first Christian on the throne, and Orthodox saint, called equal to the apostles. His mother Helen also canonized Orthodox holy. His edict of Milan allowed profession of Christianity in the whole empire. Having won all his rivals, became the sole ruler and with political reasons moved the capital of empire to Byzantium, later called Constantinople.
Essenes - religious group of Jews in the Second Temple era. According to various testimonies of ancient authors (Philo, Josephus, Pliny the Elder) formed a separate colony kind of religious brotherhoods and followed strict rules of ascetic life in a closed community of all. Essen was one of the three Hebrew philosophical schools, along with the Sadducees and Pharisees came to the forefront of political life in the era of the Maccabees. In contrast to the first two groups in the New Testament never mentions Essen.
Pontius Pilate - Roman prefect of Judea c 26 to 36 years CE, the Roman rider. Tacitus calls him procurator of Judea, Josephus - ruler (hegemon) and the governor, but was found in 1961 in Caesarea inscription, dating from the reign of Pilate, shows that he, like other Roman governor of Judea from 6 to 41 years, has been in office prefect.
Edict of Milan - letter, the result of a political agreement two emperors Constantine and Licinius 313 g., which proclaimed religious toleration in the Roman Empire. Edict of Milan was an important step to make Christianity the official religion of the empire. The text of the edict did not survive, but he cited Lactantius in his work "On the death of the persecutors."
Monasticism - part of the clergy, nuns or monks composed. This person, who, abandoning the high life, are in special hostels, monasteries, hermitages, laurels or entire seclusion.
Council of Nicea - ecumenical council of the Christian church, held 325 in Nicaea (now İznik, Turkey). Council convened by Emperor Constantine the Great in order to put an end to the dispute between Bishop Alexander and Arius. At the council, Pope Sylvester was represented by two legates. A total of 318 bishops gathered Cathedral and many priests and deacons, lasted more than two months - and was the first ecumenical council in the history of Christianity.
Corpus Juris Civilis - the modern name of the construction of Roman civil law, concluded 528-534 years during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I the Great. Also known as "The construction of Justinian" or "Codification of Justinian."
Patrician - in ancient Rome to the patricians initially attributed all indigenous people that came to the tribal communities and was Roman people that opposed the plebeians. After discharge from the kind of noble patricians, patriarchal families began to treat only the aristocracy, whose ancestors were once royal Senate. Belonging to the aristocracy could be obtained only by birth and by adoption or award.
Centuriate Assembly - a type of national assembly in ancient Rome, consisting of patricians and plebeians, capable of bearing arms. Fees distributed on the basis of the property qualification. According to legend was founded by the Roman king Servius penultimate Tullio. For functions they ousted Curiate Assembly.
Dictator - extraordinary official (magistrate) during the Republic. Was appointed by consuls after decision of the Senate for a maximum of 6 months at extreme risk (internal turmoil, threat of war, etc.) when considered necessary to transfer power into the hands of one person.
Punic Wars - three wars between Rome and Carthage for supremacy over the western Mediterranean. By the mid 260's Roman Republic finally took control of the peninsula. Further expansion of Rome has made it inevitable clash of Carthage - a powerful state in the North-West Africa (Libya), which controlled a large share of Sicily and major sea lanes in the western Mediterranean. Ended complete victory of Rome and the destruction of Carthage State.
Zama - battle between the forces of Carthage and the Roman Republic, which occurred 202 BC. The exact location is unknown, somewhere near Carthage, modern Tunisia. The last and decisive battle of the Second Punic War, the victory of the Roman army led by Scipio Africanus Carthaginian army of Hannibal. The only battle of the Second Punic War, where Hannibal was defeated.
Catullus - Roman lyric poet, master of love poetry, Neoteric.
Gaius Gracchus - political leader of the Roman Republic, democratic-popularity leader.
Social War - The war began when Rome refused to extend the right of Roman citizenship to allies, as proposed tribune Marcus Livius Drusus. The Allies were well organized and armed, created a political federation "Italy" with its capital in central Italy, in cities and Korfiniy Bovianum where there were power bodies, so at first the Romans could not get the upper hand over them by force. Then, to prevent the proliferation of the revolt, the Romans offered citizenship rights to all those who have not yet took up arms, and even those who stop fighting. Finally, when the uprising was brutally suppressed, which required all forces of Rome and the participation of top generals, including Mary and Sulla, citizenship was given to all those who, within 60 days of face to get it. Thus, the losers have achieved fulfillment of their demands from the winners, so that was eliminated the risk of renewal of war.
Gaius Julius Caesar - Roman statesman and politician, military leader, and writer. Activities Caesar radically changed the cultural and political view of Europe and the Mediterranean and left a distinguished mark on the lives of future generations.
Gallic Wars - series of military campaigns and battles between Roman legions and Gallic tribes from 58 to 50 years BC.
Octavian - first Roman emperor (27 BC. e.). With the victory in 31 BC over the Roman general Mark Antony and the Egyptian queen Cleopatra he finished the Civil War (43-31 BC), which began after the death of Caesar. Concentrated in the hands of dictatorial power, retaining the traditional republican institutions, launching a new form of social organization "Principate".
Pax Romana - long and relatively peaceful period in the history of the Roman Empire and its colonies. Roman governors and legislators were able to interrupt the civil wars in belonged to them areas. However, this time the Roman Empire continued to struggle with the peoples and tribes living on the periphery of their possessions. But overall it was a relatively quiet period during which Rome were not great civil war, and the country has not been serious attempts to conquest by barbarians or other countries.
Five Good Emperors - five sequentially Roman emperors who ruled from the Antonine dynasty: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. During their reign (96 - 180 BC. E.), which is characterized by stability and the absence of repression, the Roman Empire reached its zenith.
Marc Aurelius - Roman Emperor from 161 the year belongs to the Antonine dynasty. He was the son of Vera Aniya and Domitius Lutsilly. Known as the stoic philosopher.
Horace - poet of "golden age" of Roman literature, with Virgil and Ovid, one of the most famous authors in world literature.
Galen - Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher Roman era.
Neo-Platonism - idealistic trend of ancient philosophy III-VI century, which connects and organizes the elements of the philosophy of Plato, Aristotle and Eastern philosophy. The most famous and significant expression of its ideas is the Plotinus. Idealist theory of Plato's ideas took shape in Neo-Platonism doctrine of emanations (radiation) of the material world from the spiritual source.
Vandals - ancient East Germanic tribe.
Sadducees - religious and political movement of the Jewish priestly aristocratic strata of Jews in the Second Temple era. Stood out as one of the three Hebrew philosophical schools, along with the Pharisees and the Essenes that came to the forefront of political life in the era of the Maccabees.
Zealots - socio-political and religious movement in Judea, which arose in the era of the Maccabees in the second half of the I century BC. e. and finally took shape in the middle of I century BC. There were a branch of the Pharisees movement.
Paul of Tarsus - most prominent early Christian missionary, "Apostle of the Gentiles" and one of the first theologians of Christianity.
Theodosius I The Great - Roman emperor in the East and the last united Roman emperor only after he joined the eastern and western parts of the empire. After his death in Milan, east and west of the empire split end.
Arianism - one of the directions of the early Christian church. Denying the church doctrine of the Trinity single essence, arianists claimed that Christ - the Son of God - lower than God the Father. At the Council of Nicea 325 Arianism was deemed heresy and finally sentenced a Christian church in 381.
St. Jerome - Christian theologian, writer, known as a translator of the text of the Bible from Greek and Hebrew languages at the then Latin. His translation is called the Vulgate and today is the official biblical text of the Roman Catholic Church.
Justinian I - Byzantine emperor from August 1, 527 until his death in 565. According to legend, Justinian had Slavic roots, and even during the reign of his uncle Justin and played a key role in the political life of Byzantium.
The Gospels - early Christian writings that tell of the earthly life of the founder of Christianity, Jesus Christ. Part of the Bible. In a figurative sense - books that concluded the basic principles, rules of something.
FIRST QUESTION ESSAY
Ancient Rome - one of the largest slave states - left a bright trace in history. Its cultural heritage had a profound influence on the subsequent development of European civilization. The creation and fixing an extensive system of binding law, it has achieved significant results that had a decisive impact on the legal opinion of the Middle Ages and modern times, and which, of course, are among the greatest achievements of the Romans. During the republic government organization was simple enough, and while appropriate for conditions that have been in Rome before the time of the state. They were the national assembly, senate and graduate school. Although the national assembly were considered by the authorities of the Roman people and were the embodiment of democracy inherent in the policy, not predominantly managed by the state. It did senate and magistrates - authorities in power nobility. In the Roman Republic, there were three types of national assembly - Centuriate, Tribunate and Сonstituencies. For several centuries, Rome waged aggressive war. He managed before I century BC grab vast areas. Besides Italy, Rome ruled in Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, North Africa, Macedonia, part of Asia Minor. An immense slave state appeared. The markets of Rome received a huge number of slaves. After the capture of Carthage (149-146 years. BC.E.) 50 thousand of prisoners were transferred into slavery. Cheapness slaves allowed to use them in agriculture in a much larger scale than before.
Main social base of the republic continued unabated. Dissatisfaction farmers coincided with a powerful slave rebellion in Sicily (73-71 years .. BC), the rebellion of Spartacus and six-year war with the Numidians, invasion of Teutons demanded to mobilize all forces. Military resources were running low. This is indicative of the deep crisis of the republic. In 82 BC commander Sula took Rome. A predefined list of "suspicious" were destroyed thousands of Republicans. These lists are called Proscription. Proscription lists became a symbol of lawlessness and violence. Sulla made public meeting to elect him dictator, the first period of the dictatorship was not limited. To the Senate were appointed additional 300 members from supporters of the dictator. Sulla was unlimited ruler of Rome. The final decline of the republic and the transfer of power in the hands of one person took place soon after the assassination of Caesar (44 BC.). His distant cousin Octavian failed to completely subjugate all the old institutions.
Caesar Augustus - the first Roman emperor, founder of the principality, who played a key role in the transition of Rome from the era of civil wars (I c. BC. E.) To the era of "Roman" world, in other words – to the ear of Pax Romana. After the assassination of Caesar young man that was adopted him, joined the struggle for power. Staying on the Senate side against Mark Antony, Octavian defeated him and banished from Italy. After he did not receive from the Senate promised rewards, he conquered Rome and concluded with Anthony and other prominent ally of Caesar Lepidus Union (Second Triumvirate). Bleed white their opponents in Italy with mass terror (Proscription) and enriched at their expense, then defeated the triumvirs at Philippi (Macedonia) Army of Brutus and Cassio (Caesar's assassins). Anthony gained the eastern provinces to war with Parthia, Octavian - West and Italy to empower veterans land and money, Lepidus - Africa. Later, Octavian defeated Sextus Pompey in Sicily and Lepidus deprived of power; renewed supply of grain to Rome from overseas provinces and destroyed numerous bands of robbers and pirates. Authority Octavian in Italy increased markedly.
Starting from the 3rd century, hostilities against the Roman Empire began to increase, until the enemy tribes managed to capture the territory of the Black Sea. The first battle between the Romans and the Goths took place in 378. The result of the confrontation was the complete collapse of the Roman army and killing the emperor. After half a century break the army of Goths have surrounded Rome. The city was raging hunger and infectious diseases, but the Romans were not going to give up and did not accept the terms Allariha, who led a hostile army. Goths managed to capture Rome. For the first time in its history the city of Rome could enter the enemy. Finally, the one who had an ability to destroy Rome was vandals trides. A huge number of Romans were killed, those who survived were taken into slavery. But a complete collapse of the Roman Empire was followed after the capture of the Huns. Tribes Chinese nomads who gradually destroy all the nations that live in their way, were able to get to the Roman Empire. The leader of the Huns, Attila, raged in Italy for two years. Roman generals, who all this time were in the rear, was able to go into a conspiracy with the Attila's bride, who on the wedding day killed her husband. So the Romans get a little hope that the Empire can reborn again. Weakened state was unable to protect its people. To at least somehow strengthen the state treasury, the government of Rome has raised taxes. Impoverished population has no possibility of their pay. Moreover, the lack of land holdings generated a terrible famine. The Romans, who were known as strong and proud nation had to earn for living, serving the barbarians. Christian Church, which by then was the state religion, and made their contribution to the disappearance of the Romans faith and hope for the best. Spiritual preachers explain a difficult time for the wages of the pagan past and advised to come to terms with the fall of the state, because it is the only way to be saved. By 476, it became apparent that the Western Roman Empire is doomed.
For a long time, Christians were not allowed to profess their faith and were disenfranchised due to the fact that in the ages of its existence, the Roman Empire reared own cult and legal order. One of the reasons rejection of the Church had an idea of the greatness of the empire, as the Roman poet Quintus: "The ancient customs and men kept Roman state." That is the basis of these reasons and ideas of all antiquity lay concept of government. By the third century AD, Christianity was banned in the Roman Empire. Only with the advent of Constantine the Great the weakening of anti-Christian movements began. Over the next ten years, he united under his rule the whole Roman Empire. Having defeated Rome, Constantine issued a decree, Edict of Milan in 313, in which Christians were granted the right to freely practice their faith. The full of terrible torture during the centuries of persecution of Chrostians has ended. It's a world where the Christian faith was freely spread throughout the Roman Empire and beyond. The Emperor turned Christians property taken away during the persecution, decreed the Sunday celebration. During the reign of Constantine the Great, Church persecuted and pursued quickly reaches a privileged position. This period of Christian history, when the major tenets assert themselves and formed the Church hierarchy, called classic. It was introduced the practice of the Ecumenical Councils, which are the highest governing body of the Christian Church. First Ecumenical Council in Nicaea was held, where was approved the Creed - a summary of the main tenets mandatory for all Christians. Council of Nicaea was launched on the June 19 325 and lasted for two months. According to various historical documents, it was attended to from 250 to 350 bishops. Emperor Constantine arrived at the cathedral in early July and gave a speech for the audience in which stressed the importance of understanding and harmony.
Unfortunately, the Church has badly influenced on the Roman society in the decline period of Roman Empire. As was mentioned above, the priests, bishops etc. had been saying that these diseases, wars, internal problems are the result of anti-Christian past of Romans, instead of trying to increase the morale, bring faith and hope!
Martin, Thomas R. Ancient Rome. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012. Print.
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