Prevention Of Tooth Decay In Children Research Paper Examples

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Dentistry, Family, Children, Tooth, Education, Health, Literature, Prevention

Pages: 8

Words: 2200

Published: 2021/01/27

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Synthesis of the Literature

Brief overview summary of Literature
In your own words briefly describe what the literature states
The literature reviewed in this study includes published articles from past 6 years. These articles are chosen for the study on the basis of high level of relevance with the research question that is “Will brushing teeth, using dental floss, and applying fluoride with pit and fissure sealant help prevent tooth decay in children?” The literature reviewed in this research consists of articles covering various aspects of the research question that are interlinked.
The literature covers the effects of fluoride on prevention of tooth decay, improving dental and oral health in children through educating them and use of dental floss along with brushing teeth as tooth decay prevention method. Use of pit and fissure sealants is also covered in the literature reviewed for this study in order to effectively formulate an intervention plan. In general, the literature reviewed covers major aspects related to the prevention of tooth decay while providing empirical evidence to support the claims.
The literature reviewed also covers the past, present and future of dentistry including the challenges faced by the practitioners and the solution or interventions that were successful. Such a study helps devising an effective intervention program while avoiding repetition of mistakes from the past. The major focus of the research is placed on the dental health issues especially tooth decay in children.
One of the article chosen for the study includes intervention methods for prevention of tooth decay in children. This research article forms a strong basis for the study to be carried out in the right direction. The comprehensive elaboration of the problems, symptoms and solutions in this article are very helpful in understanding the effects of various tooth decay intervention methods. Another important research under review indicates about the cost effectiveness of the pit-and-fissure sealants in prevention of tooth decay which is an important area of the research.

Indicate any strengths or weaknesses in the research

The research conducted by the researchers of the literature reviewed in this study is considered mostly of scientifically valid with provision of sufficient empirical evidence. There are few of the studies reviewed in this paper that need to enhance the breadth of the research through covering alternate intervention. In one of the study, the problem of faculty shortage in dental school has been described through stating facts and figures; however, a suitable solution is not mentioned in order to address the problem.
Another report covered the reports from parents regarding the dental health of their children and lack evidence from their associated dentists in order to ensure the validity of the data received from the parents. An article regarding past, present and future of dentistry is an important study that tells about the major accomplishments in the field and highlights the important game changers of it. The literature reviewed talks about tooth decay problems and solutions for all including children.
The literature indicates positive results in most of the intervention programs for helping in prevention of tooth decay especially in children. The cost effectiveness is the main factor behind success of a prevention plan. If a prevention plan is not feasible in terms of cost effectiveness then it won’t be considered suitable for implementation. The cost effectiveness of pit-and-fissure sealants in prevention of tooth decay and various other intervention techniques have been identified in the research articles under review.

Summarize the Pros and Cons of the specific intervention or treatment you researched

Base your summary on the literature you found
There are three intervention methods chosen for this study with the aim to prevent tooth decay in children. The first method is brushing teeth twice a day. This intervention method requires the children to brush their teeth twice a day which not only helps in prevention of tooth decay but also prevention of other diseases including heart attack as described by one of the articles under review.
Children can be motivated to brush their teeth twice a day through encouraging them in schools by their teachers and in homes by their parents. The main advantage of this intervention is that once the children will develop the habit of brushing their teeth twice a day then they will continue doing so through the rest of their lives. The second method of intervention for helping the prevention of tooth decay pertains to using dental floss. Use of dental floss can be taught to the children in their schools and asked by their parents at homes in the similar manner as described for brushing twice.
The advantage of such an intervention includes cleansing of teeth after every meal which will reduce formulation of food residues in teeth that result in tooth decay. The third intervention method in the literature reviewed pertains to the application of fluoride with pit and fissure sealant.
This method is a way of providing shield to the teeth of children in order to avoid accumulation of any food residue or other stimulant of tooth decay. This technique is different from the previous two technique; however, the results are quite similar to the previous ones. The only difference between brushing teeth & using dental floss and application of fluoride with pit and fissure sealant is the high cost of the later technique.

Make a recommendation for use of this intervention in your profession

Base your recommendation on the literature and support your reason why you would or would not use this intervention. This is in your professional opinion based on what you read.
As a health science professional, I will devise a comprehensive intervention plan for prevention of tooth decay in children and implement the same through the techniques learned from the literature. The intervention plan that I will formulate for prevention of tooth decay in children will consist of encouraging children to brush their teeth daily and floss them after each meal. The importance and benefits of application of fluoride with pit and fissure sealant will be highlighted to the parents of the children in order to encourage them to use fluoride with pit and fissure sealant with the help of a good dentist.
As health science professional, I will first implement the intervention plan to a limited population and get feedback on the results from all the stakeholders including children, parents and the dentists. The feedback received from the stakeholders will form the basis for review of the intervention along with test implementation on another limited population. Such iterations will be continued till the time a working intervention plan get established through changes from the feedbacks received. After successful implementation of the intervention plan, the same will be widely publicized and implemented in order to prevent tooth decay in children with the most effective prevention method.

Discuss legal and ethical considerations for this intervention

Are there any legal issues with the use of this intervention?
According to one of the article reviewed in this study, the CODA standard requirement dictates that the graduates need to be competent enough to have the knowledge of legal as well as regulatory considerations involved in the implementation of any intervention plan for dental health care. It clearly implies that the understanding of the legal and regulatory requirements for practicing in the dental healthcare is an essential condition. In order to successfully develop an effective intervention plan, a professional in the field of health care must adhere to the legal as well as regulatory requirements as laid down by the government bodies.
Such requirements may include prior permission of parents before applying the intervention on their children. Similarly, any ingredient used in the solution or product will have to be cleared by FDA and other relevant agencies in order to ensure protection of the health of the user from the product. The legal requirements also include mentioning of side effects of the products with the instructions in order to safeguard the health of the user and the position of the health professional.

Are there any ethical issues with the use of this intervention?

According to one of the article reviewed in this study, the CODA standard requirement dictates that the graduates need to be competent enough to have the knowledge of ethical considerations involved in the implementation of any intervention plan for dental health care. It clearly implies that the understanding of all the ethical and moral requirements for practicing in the dental healthcare is an essential condition rather than a choice.
In order to successfully develop an effective intervention plan, a professional in the field of health care must understand the ethical aspects of it and adhere to the norms of the industry as well as the requirements laid down by the government bodies. Such requirements may include screening of the topics to be taught to the children in order to ensure the level of the literature presented to the children meet their level.
The consensus of parents of the children should be taken on the content of the intervention method in order to enable them to give their suggestions in improving the same. It will also allow them to understand the details of the intervention plan while knowing what their children are going through during the educational sessions. The ethical requirements also include giving due credit to the people who participated in the study to improve the intervention plan through providing their valuable suggestions.

Discuss Future Research

Where is the research lacking to support this type of intervention?
The intervention proposed as the result of the literature studied for this research is of a comprehensive nature including three major parts of the intervention plan. The first part consisting of the intervention based on brushing teeth twice a day is covered in the literature studied but lacks evidence to support the effectiveness of the plan in preventing tooth decay in children. Rather the chosen article describes about the benefits of brushing teeth twice a day in terms of reducing the risk of heart attack. The study needs to be more focused towards the dental health of the people who chose to brush their teeth twice a day.
The second part of the intervention consists of encouraging children to floss their teeth after every meal. This area of the intervention needs to be further investigated and the existing literature as reviewed discusses limited application of it in the prevention of tooth decay. The use of dental floss is the most cost effective way of intervening tooth decay in children. The third part of the intervention plan pertains to applying fluoride with pit and fissure sealant to help prevent tooth decay in children. This part requires extensive research and cost-benefit analysis in order to come to the conclusion of the extent to which this part is to be implemented.

What are the strengths of the current research that has been conducted?

The current research has the major strength in the flexibility of the intervention plan that can be maneuvered among the three parts according to the requirements and the feedback received on the effectiveness of each part.
An example could be that if the results of the research show that children do not like to brush their teeth twice a day but can allow applying fluoride with pit and fissure sealant once every month then the third part of the research can be taken as the primary and the brushing teeth as tertiary while bringing flossing of teeth to the secondary level.
Similar is the case for bringing other parts of intervention to the primary, secondary, or tertiary position or level in order to come up with the best possible intervention plan with optimum results in not only preventing tooth decay in children but also costing least possible investment against the outcome. Another important aspect of the current research is regarding various techniques used in each of the parts of the intervention plan that will help in execution of the plan.
These technique include education for children on the lines of bringing their awareness level to such an extent that they themselves become aware of the importance of brushing and flossing their teeth or applying fluoride with pit and fissure sealant on their teeth.

What recommendations do you have to further the research in this area?

The research can be further improved through including research in the alternates to brushing teeth, flossing, and applying fluoride with pit and fissure sealant help prevent tooth decay in children. Another important aspect is to cover the intervention to be implemented for the adults as well. Studied in future may be based on newer technologies available at the time of research while experimenting on the basis of cost effectiveness of each of the technology. The two important aspects that should be kept in mind while conducting further research in the area of preventing tooth decay are the ease of implementation and cost-benefit analysis.
Future research in this area could also include the acceptance level of children for each of the parts of the intervention plan in order to rate the acceptability of them and plan a feasible intervention plan accordingly. Surveying and conducting interviews is a key way of carrying out primary research in the area of prevention of tooth decay in children. Such surveys should be based on a rating based questionnaire in order to facilitate the target population (children) to easily answer each question. Further research in the area should focus on the improvement of dental health of people through inculcating good habits in children through effective intervention techniques. Such research should also present the indirect benefits that would be the result of implementing the intervention on children.

Reference

Magalhaes, A. C., Rios, D., Martinhon, C. C., Delbem, A. C., Buzalaf, M. A., & Machado, M. A. (2008). The Influence of Residual Salivary Fluoride from Dentifrice on Enamel Erosion: An In Situ Study. Braz Oral Res, 22, 67–71.
De Olivera, C., Watt, R., & Hamer, M. (2010). Tooth Brushing, Inflammation And Risk Factor Of Cardiovascular Disease: Results From Scottish Health Survey. BMJ, 340, C2451
Azarpazhooh, A., & Main, P.A. (2008). Pit and Fissure Sealants in the Prevention Of Dental Caries In Children And Adolescents. JCDA, 74(2)
Hiiri, A., Ahovou-Saloranta, A., Nordblad, A., & Makela, M. (2010). Pit and Fissure Sealants Versus Fluoride Varnish For Preventing Dental Decay In Children And Adolescents. Cochrane Database system rev, 17(3)
Slavkin, H.C. (n.d). Evolution of the scientific Basis for Dentistry and its Impact on Dental Education: Past, Present and Future. Journal of Dental Education, 76(1), 28-35
Vered, Y., Krivoroutski, Y., & Zini, A. (2014). Primary Prevention of Dental Erosion By Calcium And Fluoride: A Systematic Review. International Journal of Dental Hygiene, 12, 17-24
Voogd, C. (2014). Addressing tooth decay in children and young people. British Journal of School Nursing, 9(6), 276-81
Chi, D. L., Van der Goes, D. N., & Ney, J. P. (2014). Cost- Effectiveness of Pit- and-Fissure Sealants on Primary Molars in Medicaid Enrolled Children. American journal of public health, 104(3), 555-61
Seale, N. S., McWhorter, A. G., & Mouradian, W. E. (2009). Dental Education’s Roles in improving Children’s Oral Health and Access to Care. Academic Pediatric, 9,440-5
Edelstein, B. L., & Chinn, C. H. (2009). Update on Disparities in Oral Health and Access to Dental Care for America’s Children. Academic Pediatrics, 9(6), 415-19

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