Principles Of Measurement Essays Example

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Development, Railway, Railroad, Standardization, Transportation, Vehicles, Infrastructure, United States

Pages: 2

Words: 550

Published: 2021/02/23

The concept of principles of measurement basically involve a set of standards, benchmarks, guidelines as well as practices applied to evaluate and determine the extent, degree or magnitude of a condition or a phenomenon (Sarkar & Jana, 13). The most obvious method or principle of measurement that can be used to determine the physical quantities of certain materials involves counting i.e. counting the number of fruits in a basket et cetera (Sarkar & Jana, 13).

History and Development of Standards

Historical evidence indicates that standards have been in existence from the beginning of recorded history (Macnamara, 7). The earliest activity that involved standardization began from as early as 1120 AD by King Henry I of England; he introduce or instituted the use of ell, which was almost equal to his arm length. Certain standards were developed from man’s desire to create harmony within his environment, while others were developed as a result of increasing complexities within the society that needed standardization (Macnamara, 8). The calendar has been considered one of the earliest standardization mechanisms, which were relied upon by the ancient civilization; it basically involved observation and recording the positions of the sun, stars and the moon in order to determine time to engage in certain activities i.e. planting crops or to celebrate holidays. Approximately in the 4000 BC’s, Egyptian developed the 365 day calendar; it is similar to the current calendar used by the contemporary society (Macnamara, 8).
In the 19th century, with the emergence of the Industrial revolution, there were increased incidences of transportation of i.e. goods to different places. Railroads played significant roles in facilitating transportation of goods and other materials from surplus areas to deficit areas; however, the development of the railroad was based on a standardization procedure on the railroad gauge. The 20th century was characterized rapid economic and infrastructural development; this created a need for development of unique standards that would enhance the level of security as well as safety of urban dwellers. Standardization was also extended towards space planning and the use of environmental resources as a means of enhancing sustainability and safety (Macnamara, 10).

Effect of Industrial Revolution and Five Relevant Standards

As aforementioned, the emergence of industrial revolution was characterized by rapid development in the transportation sector. This was facilitated by increased human population in various regions creating an increased demand on human support resources (Wolmar, 6). As such, there was an increased need of goods and materials creating a need for faster transportation resources. The railroad played a significant role in facilitating the transportation of goods and materials from surplus and deficit areas (Wolmar, 6). However, in order to facilitate efficiency in the railroad transportation systems, there was a need to standardize the railway gauges to s specific measurement. The United States, being one of the fast and rapidly developing nations at that time, saw the need to develop a common and standardized gauge railway that measured 4ft by eight and half inches (Wolmar, 7). This railway gauge was authorized for use during the Transcontinental Railroad between 1864 and 1886. It was later recognized as the official United States Railway gauge Standard. The standard gauge railway is still currently used in many nations that use railways as means of transporting heavy loads and bulky materials (Wolmar, 8).
One of the relevant standards developed at the beginning of the 20th century is the Engineerign Standards Committee (ESC) that was developed in the United Kingdom. It is the predecessor of the British Standard Institute (Macnamara, 12). The British Engineering Standards Committee stipulates certain quality standards fro services and goods. There is also the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the ISO provides a set of standards observed and applied globally among its members. These standards guide various issues ranging from scientific research to economic activities. Another relevant standard is the Financial Action Task Force Standards (FATF). This standard is guided by 40 recommendatins that that guide various financial systems and to prevent money laundering activities (Macnamara, 12). Consequently, there is the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology, which is a basically a non-governmental organization in the United States that set certain accreditation standards and procedures for students within post-secondary education in the fields of engineering technology, computer engineering and applied sciences. The ABET accreditation standards are also applicable in other nations. The American Society for Testing and Materials standards also referred as ASTM standards provide certain international standards that guide a wide range of products, systems as well as services (Macnmara, 14).

Work Cited

Macnamara, Jim. "The development of international standards for measurement and evaluation of public relations and corporate communication: A review." (2014).
Sarkar, Dr D., and Jana D.K. "Instrumentation: General Principles of Measurement Systems." Process Control and Instrumentation (2015).
Wolmar, Christian. The Great Railway Revolution: The Epic Story of the American Railroad. Atlantic Books Ltd, 2012.

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