Sample Research Paper On Alzheimer`s Disease
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Alzheimer`s Disease is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that is currently affecting an estimated 25 million people across the globe (Burock et al, 2014). The number of infection is expected to increase to approximately 75 million in the next 30 years. The disease is mostly experienced by elderly women in the age limit 65-85 (Solomon et al, 2014). However, in extreme ages such as 85+ years, the condition presents itself in pronounce levels. The prevalence of the disease is observed in both developed and underdeveloped nations. The disease is characterized by prominent psychiatric symptoms, memory impairment, and behavioral disturbances. These characteristics quite often limit an individual from carrying out the daily chores (Callaway, 2012).
Management of the Alzheimer’s Diseases
The initial step in managing AD is an accurate diagnosis of the disease, and then disclosing the issue in the most sensitive and timely manner. Research studies indicate that there is no known cause of the disease. However, the per-se conditions such as memory loss, behavioral disturbances and depression may act as vital elements to suspect the onset of the disease. A definitive psychological and laboratory tests is usually essential to confirm the existence of the condition (Solomon et al, 2014). The patient medical history family and co-morbidities will reveal the cause of the illness, affected cognitive domains, and the impact on the AD. Clinically, the general physical and neurological examination is particularly vital. According to the most recent expert opinions, they suggest the screening for the vitamin B12, Thyroid stimulating hormone, calcium, glucose and liver function abnormalities. It is also important to carry out serological tests for Borrelia, HIV and syphilis in circumstances where there are suggestive clinical features. These tests will help to distinguish the AD from other primary and secondary degenerative and dementia co-morbidities. Early diagnosis of the disease is important since it provides that patient and the family to get a better chance of treatment participate in advance research and plan for the future. Once the diagnosis is disclosed, Occupational therapy may be provided to the patient and the family (Callaway, 2012).
Treatment of the Alzheimer`s Disease
Alzheimer's Foundation of America in their research studies indicates that there is no approved cure for the AD. In most circumstances, clinicians have advised the use of Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigimine and galantamine). The Donepezil as an AChE inhibitor operates by accelerating the concentration of the acetylcholine at the sites of the body neurotransmitters. The drug should be administered at 5mg once per day at bedtime, and then increased to 10mg after one month if necessary. Galantamine also increases acetylcholine concentration at the neurotransmitter sites. It is often administered at 8mg per day. Rivestigimine also operates like the other two and administered at 1.5 mg twice per day. All these drugs operate by limiting the breakdown of acetylcholine, the essential messengers for memory and learning. By limiting the levels of acetylcholine, the drug support effective communication between the nerves (Solomon et al, 2014). However, it is important to note that these drugs possess varied side effects such as anxiety, constipation, headache, and dizziness. As a result of these adverse effects, there is insufficient evidence to support the application of any drug for treatment of the disease.
The Non-Pharmacologic Treatments
The Clinical meta-analysis indicates that, the non-pharmacological treatments are integral part of the overall treatment for the AD. These non-pharmacological treatments include; education, sensory stimulation, aromatherapy and personalized music. Patient caregivers should be equipped with relevant educational and support services necessary for the patient. Aromatherapy and sensory stimulation both alerts the nerves for maximum operation. Personalized music allows the patient to relax and achieve maximum nerve rest. The other most important option is to change the patient environment and eliminate the obstacles that are associated with the disease. Alzheimer's association report indicate that, identifying what triggers the disease is quite important while selecting the treatment approach (David et al, 2010).
Prevention of the Alzheimer`s Disease
Alzheimer's Foundation of America in their constant research has revealed that at current state, there is neither known specific cause nor treatment for the disease. Therefore, vigilant care is necessary to prevent the onset of the disease. In their quest, The Global Alzheimer's Association has identified some of the most common risk factors that are most likely to increase the development of the disease (Anderson et al, 2011). These include age, genetics and family history. Clinical intervention reveals that proper care should be taken to the memory especially at later ages. They further stipulate that people with lineage history of the disease should take much care by making regular checkups. The human head should be protected while operating any physical activity to prevent any form of injury (David et al, 2010).
Alzheimer's Foundation of America is on the constant move to advance the research on the AD. Although there are no known possible protective version of the gene to prevent AD, Clinical studies have discovered new test, drugs interventions that can detect, treat and prevent the disease in future. The studies are also searching for better methods of care and improved quality of life among the infected patients (Anderson et al, 2011).
As a result of the increased levels of the disease infection, it is important for everyone to provide a support in order to prevent further cases. The Global Alzheimer's Association should continue to provide their support and research on the best ways of handling emerging issues concerning the disease and its detrimental effects.
Anderson, L. N., McCaul, K. D., & Langley, L. K. (2011). Common-sense beliefs about the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Aging & Mental Health, 15(7), 922-931. doi:10.1080/13607863.2011.569478
Alzheimer's association report finds 1 in 3 seniors dies with alzheimer's or another dementia. (2013). Professional Services Close – Up, 1-3
Burock, J., & Naquvi, L. (2014). Practical Management of Alzheimer's Dementia. Rhode Island Medical Journal, 97(6), 36-40.
Callaway, E. (2012). Gene mutation defends against Alzheimer’s disease. Nature, 487, 153. Retrieved from http://www.nature.com/news/gene-mutation-defends-against-alzheimer-s-disease-1.10984
David, R., Zeitzer, J., Friedman, L., Noda, A., O'Hara, R., Robert, P., & Yesavage, J. (2010). Non-pharmacologic management of sleep disturbance in Alzheimer's disease. Journal Of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 14(3), 203-206. doi:10.1007/s12603-010-0050-9
Solomon, A., Mangialasche, F., Richard, E., Andrieu, S., Bennett, D. A., Breteler, M., & Kivipelto, M. (2014). Advances in the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Journal Of Internal Medicine, 275(3), 229-250. doi:10.1111/joim.12178
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