Sample Research Paper On Deviance And General Intelligence
INTELLIGENCE AND ITS INFLUENCE ON DELINQUENCY
The concepts of the correlation of intelligence and deviant behavior are based on the shift in the medical sociological example that occurred in the early twentieth century. It has not been shown that elevated levels of intelligence are a requisite for illicit behavior. Intelligence has been demonstrated to have an influence on delinquency that is exercised independently of the individual's socioeconomic context or race. It has been debated that this influence is applied by means of a variety of scholastic and social variables. These intelligence variables that influence delinquency were reviewed. The perspectives of Côté et al. (2011), Hirshi and Hindelang (1977), Lynam et al. (1993) and Shulman (1951) were accessed in the research.
Studies on the correlations of delinquency and intelligence have shown that the correlation is as direct as the correlation that is present between race and class to delinquency. Intelligence has been shown to have a greater influence on delinquency that either socioeconomic status or race. In the historical analysis on the studies of the intelligence – delinquency relation, there are recent developments that demonstrate that intelligence may not be as significant a factor in delinquent behavior as previously suggested. The aim of this research paper is to correlate delinquent behavior to the distinct qualities of intelligence (Côté et al, 2011; Hirshi and Hindelang, 1977; Lynam et al., 1993; Shulman, 1951).
There has always been empirical interest with regards to deviance and intelligence. Research has demonstrated that the deviant behaviors of violence have been perpetrated by individuals with lower intelligence. Forgery and fraud have been committed by individuals with more elevated levels of intelligence. The correlations of this category that have been based on adult samples are of restricted benefit for juvenile delinquency. Research has shown that fraud and forgery have composed less than 2% of all criminal deviations. It can be delineated that a number of characteristics of offense have their origins in the cultural participative roles of adult existence (Côté et al, 2011; Hirshi and Hindelang, 1977; Lynam et al., 1993; Shulman, 1951).
Intelligence has been assertively reflated to a deficit of parental administration, forgery and malicious mischief. Intelligence has been negatively related to sexual offenses, vagrancy and truancy. Theft has been demonstrated to have no correlation with intelligence. Research has demonstrated that the deviant behaviors of escaping from mental health and correctional institutions, truancy, incorrigibility, forgery, arson and theft increase in relation to intelligence. There has been research that has demonstrated that gang membership has its greatest tendency of recruiting individuals who possess intelligence quotients that vary from 40 to 99. There has been the greatest proportion of sex delinquency among females who have lower intelligence quotients. Research has demonstrated that individuals who have lower levels of intelligence will resort to breaking an automobile window in order to steal a simple object or stealing the entire car and fleeing (Côté et al, 2011; Hirshi and Hindelang, 1977; Lynam et al., 1993; Shulman, 1951).
Tendencies toward Personality and Conduct Dysfunctions
Research has demonstrated that intelligent individuals have greater tendency toward personality dysfunctions and the less intelligent individuals have a greater tendency toward conduct dysfunctions. In individuals who have intelligence quotients over 80, there is a greater tendency toward personality dysfunctions. Socioeconomic distinctions have not modified these outcomes. Research suggests that deviant behavior is the outcome of parents who have applied decreased parental intelligence in raising their children. The more elevated levels of parental intelligence have been correlated with relaxed forms of child development by the parents (Côté et al, 2011; Hirshi and Hindelang, 1977; Lynam et al., 1993; Shulman, 1951).
The individuals who have lower indexes of intelligence resort to crimes that include theft and assault. The individuals who have higher levels of intelligence resort to criminal behaviors that include forgery. It has been suggested that these distinctions could be attributed to distinct models of parental development. Research has also demonstrated that class distinctions are correlated with the category of criminal behavior. The children who are derived from homes that have lower incomes have greater number of loopholes and less restrictions. The children that are raised in middle class family settings have less loopholes and a greater number of restrictions. Consequently, the adults who originate from homes that had lower incomes may resort to acts of aggression and hostility. The increased characteristics of aggression and hostility may be due to the lack of restraint demonstrated in the child development stage. The individual who originates from a middle class family may have a greater likelihood of resorting to criminal activities that include a diverse collection of protective practices and tension administration. The individuals who originate in middle class homes have greater tendencies toward fraud (Côté et al, 2011; Hirshi and Hindelang, 1977; Lynam et al., 1993; Shulman, 1951).
Research has demonstrated that emotional intelligence has been correlated with prosocial behavior. Prosocial behavior has been delineated as behavior that benefits the greater good and increases their wellbeing. Emotional intelligence can be correlated to socially assertive and socially deviant behavior. Emotional intelligence serves to increase the negative and assertive social ends by reinforcing the connections that are present between the personality characteristics and interpersonal deviance. Interpersonal deviance would be manifested by activities that bring advantages to the self and by going country to norms and acting to the detriment of others. Emotional intelligence reinforces the connection with the quality of moral identity. Mortal identity is defined as the context of being a moral person contributes to the individual-s prosocial behavior and self-concept (Côté et al, 2011; Hirshi and Hindelang, 1977; Lynam et al., 1993; Shulman, 1951).
Lower intelligence has been demonstrated to contribute to increased indexes of recidivism in delinquency. General intelligence has been perceived to be a defective indicator of the probability of the individual having the capacity of socially adjusting. A person who is intelligent may apply general intelligence in order to learn from the episodes. This may be performed in a manner that is detrimental to the society (Côté et al, 2011; Hirshi and Hindelang, 1977; Lynam et al., 1993; Shulman, 1951).
There has been a correlation that has been demonstrated between intelligence and the distinct types of deviance. Individuals that have lower indexes of intelligence have been demonstrated to have tendencies toward behavioral disorders. Individuals that have higher levels of intelligence have been demonstrated to have tendencies toward manifesting personality disorders. Crimes that require aggression and violence are more likely to be perpetrated by individuals with lower indexes of intelligence. Deviant behaviors that include thinking capacity are more likely to be perpetrated by individuals who have higher levels of intelligence. Emotional intelligence may serve to increase deviant behavior and prosocial behavior.
Côté, S., DeCelles, K. A., Mc Carthy, J.M., Van Kleef, G.A., and Hidag, I. (2011). The Jekyll and Hyde of emotional intelligence: Emotion regulation facilitates both prosocial and interpersonally deviant behavior. Psychological Science, 22(8):1073- 1080.
Hirshi, T. and Hindelang, M.J. (1977). Intelligence and delinquency: A revisionist review. American Sociological Review, 42(4): 571- 587.
Lynam, D., Moffit, T. and Stouthammer-Loebner, M. (1993). Explaining the relation between IQ and delinquency: Class, race, test motivation, school failure or self- control. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(2): 187- 196.
Shulman, H.S. (1951). Intelligence and delinquency. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 41(6): 763- 781.
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