The Definition Of Dissociative Identity Disorder Research Paper
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Dr. Jekyll`s transformations into Mr. Hyde in R. Mamoulian’s adaptation, as the example of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
"Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde", 1931 is the adaptation of the novel by Robert Louis Stevenson "Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde" by Rouben Mamoulian.
The film is set in Victorian London, showing the story of a young Dr. Henry Jekyll, who intends to marry his beloved Muriel Carew as soon as possible. She fluctuates. Her father, General Carew insists on the idea that the lovers have to postpone the wedding for a few months (typical Victorian formal proprieties). The same evening, going home by the long way, along a gloomy London district, disappointed with General`s obstinacy, Jekyll meets bar singer, Ivy Pearson who was attacked by a man outside her boarding house. He takes her to the room upstairs, where she`s trying to seduce him (the scene where Hopkins flirty removes her stockings), ready to drag Jekyll in her bed, as suddenly his friend Dr. Lanyon catches them kissing, start talking with Jekyll and pulls him out of Ivy`s hands. Now Jekyll should realize that his "Puritan world" doesn`t accept communications with "girls of easy virtue". Since then, he begins to experiment in his laboratory with different substances and in the end he takes one of these substances, which transforms him into an apelike Mr. Hyde (the evil side of Jekyll`s personality).
Being Hyde, Jekyll finds Ivy and seduces her, then turns again into the doctor. Later, he finds Ivy again and asks her for help and support, but she did not recognize Hyde in him and refused to help. The drug started to work again, and Jekyll turned into Hyde, then in a fit of rage he choked Ivy. The murder remains unsolved, and Jekyll is on the verge of madness. He wants to lose his love. This news does not reinforce strength of his bride. She gets sick. In the image of Dr. Jekyll he comes to her for help and suddenly turns into Hyde. At that moment General appears, and a fight starts. Hyde kills him and flees. The police is chasing him shooting. Hyde lays on the floor. Dying, he slowly turns into Henry Jekyll.
Mamoulian`s picture expresses an underlying atmosphere of the Great Depression period. The duality of social consciousness and a certain horror arises from the consequences of default.
The film also describes a mental disorder called Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), or split personality. DID is characterized by the presence of two or more separate identities or personalities, re-taking control of a human behavior. There is an inability to recall important personal information, which amount is too large, so that it couldn`t be explained by ordinary forgetfulness. As a rule, along with the original and the primary identity, there are the alternative identities, often with the personal characteristics of the opposite features of primary identity (Barlow, Rose, Chu, 2014).
Alternative identities can deny the existence of other identities, including the primary one. In another embodiment, alternative identities come into conflict with each other. It is believed that a characteristic of delimiting the DID and schizophrenia is that voices localized within themselves do not cause loss of contact with reality. Patients perceive these inner voices as a part of themselves. Moreover, many patients with DID report that they live with the inner voices so long as the general people do. They are surprised with an assertion that other people consider such experiences unusual. The somatic symptoms are also very important in the process of investigation (Huntjens, 420).
The reasons for DID are very compound. Study the history of life of patients with DID indicates the presence of sexual abuse in childhood, and more rarely trauma, the content of which was presented by the unexpected death of any of the closest people (Dorahy, 410). The psychiatric symptoms recorded in the structure of the DID are an object of intense interest too. These include depressive symptoms, anxiety and phobias, hallucinations, thought disorder, and delusions (Brand, 173). Diagnosis of the DID is quite difficult due to its concealment, prejudice and lack of awareness of the warning signs having the disorder and its dynamics. The diagnostic of the DID is also difficult due to the fact that after the trauma, leading to the emergence of diseases, the various ego-states are formed, bearing in their clinical manifestations the content of their psychic trauma.
The most common approach to the treatment of DID is symptomatic relief to ensure the safety of the individual, and the reintegration of different personalities in a well-functioning identity. Treatment can occur with the use of various types of psychotherapy - cognitive therapy, family therapy, clinical hypnosis, etc.
DESCRIPTIONS OF DR. JEKILL AND MR. HYDE
The first picture of Mr. Hyde, describing the movie hero, look like as if there was an obvious deformity, there was a non-hided strangeness that caused disgust and hatred. Hyde was of great growth and great physical strength. His clothes is usually torn after the conversion. He moves exclusively on the roofs and terrifies the inhabitants of the city. Hyde makes everyone who meets him, to feel very unpleasant. After the murder, Hyde did not dare to move openly around the city and sit in the laboratory of Jekyll. Jekyll looks much more physically weaker than Hyde does. He is shorter, weaker, but has a handsome constitution. Is Jekyll a respectable man? No, it is an integral nature, a mixture of good and evil, a drug for 99% consisting of Jekyll and 1% of the Hyde. From the point of view of Victorian morality, Dr. Jekyll is faulty. He is a hypocrite, carefully hiding their sins. He is vindictive - never forgave Dr. Lanyon differences in scientific views. He is prone to reckless risk. Hyde is fused together with him, to join him. From this mixture of good and evil in Dr. Jekyll pure evil can be extracted, highlighting it in a deposit in the form of Hyde - the word "pellet" is used here in a chemical sense, as a composite nature Jekyll still remains somewhere on the sidelines, watching with horror for outrages Hyde.
Like Jekyll, which mixes good and evil, his home is also variable; Jekyll’s house has an unusually detailed character, the exact expression of the relationship between him and Hyde. Thus, the combined Jekyll’s house with his quiet, spacious lounge there is a corridor leading to the lair of Hyde, the former autopsy room, and now Jekyll’s lab where the doctor produces rather dissection, than chemical experiments. The whole mood of the house and the lab is very gloomy and macabre, but with differences. The house itself illustrates Dr. Jekyll, and the lab illustrates Mr. Hyde respectively to their appearances (Subotsky, 371).
The most famous person to this day who has suffered from "dissociative identity disorder" is William Stanley Milligan (born in 1955). At the end of the 70s, this man was prosecuted in Ohio (USA). He was accused of several robberies and rapes. However, the psychiatrists failed to prove that the sick person had committed all the crimes. The twenty-four different alter-personalities were combined together in one man. Moreover, each of them acted alone, and Milligan, moving from one image to another, forgot completely about the activities of the former. The therapists were able to prove that the number of crimes for which Milligan had been accused were committed without his "participation" (Sar, 407).
William Stanley Milligan has collected a full “house” of people of different ages, genders and nationalities, but they all mixed up in this house and at some point he lost control with the situation, or rather he was deprived of the very control. Billy himself was the character prone to suicide and because of life-threatening entire "family" was "put to sleep". Periodically he had been "waking up" in prison, in the car (he did not know how to drive), or in the middle of the conversation, he did not understand what was happening, because he believed that his previous suicide attempt was unsuccessful and tried the next one. Along with "the owner of the body", there was another inactive character, who was a teacher referred to as the 24th person (CHLEBOWSKI, 175). But unlike Billy, he knew what was happening. He distinctly remembered every action and the reasons for each character, but he preferred to remain a bystander; in the future, it would be a complete picture of teacher to help Daniel Keyes make a complete biography of Milligan, which was released under the title “The Minds of Billy Milligan” (Hendriks, 493).
Billy began to multiply in early childhood due to his bad gene pool (John Morrison, his biological father, had suffered from alcoholism and depression, later he committed suicide). The very first member of the "family" was Christine; she was a "child in the corner." Three year old Englishwoman, who had the most calm disposition and without the vagaries could stand in the corner, when Billy committed nasty things at home or at school. The favorite character of the whole family, Christine in the adulthood could go "into the open" and play the calmest situations, when Billy needed to rest.
At the age of eight Billy had an addition to the "family", which was not to be remembered as a happy event. Billy’s stepfather went from moral and physical humiliation of Billy to sexual violence. At some point, Billy abstracted from reality, and the eight-years-old David came to substitute him. He took all the pain, since it would appear each time the physical suffering is inevitable, he had the nickname “Keeper of pain” in the “family”. At the age of sixteen Billy stopped multiplying and unable to move what was going on, he decided on his very first suicide attempt. The "family", feeling the danger for themselves, decided to "put Billy to sleep" for the safety of others.
The leaders of the family were Arthur and Ragen. Arthur was a twenty-two-years-old intellectual Englishman with a pronounced accent, and he occupied the first place in the "family", who guessed the existence of others and taught them to communicate with each other, and he also decided who could go "into the open" or, as they called it, "be on the spot. "
Billy went to prison twice. In 1975, he was remanded in custody for violence and robbery, but later he was released on parole. During his imprisonment, his mind control initially belonged to Lee, the twenty-years-old humorist, who was recorded as the unwanted after when his jokes began to threaten "the family"; and to Steve, the twenty-one-years-old liar, who took over the role of the jester and parodist, and later was sent to a detention center in the real world.
For the second time Billy went to jail because of a series of crimes. His fingerprints were found on the cars of two women who were robbed and raped, everyone recognized him as her abuser. His guilt was obvious, Billy faced up to 20 years, the requirements of a lawyer at a forensic psychiatric examination were rejected; an incident was necessary and the incident occurred. Accidentally or not, but Billy "woke up" and tried to kill himself, the court was required to provide expertise.
The case of Billy Milligan impressed everyone without exception, it took a long time to persuade the person to open up, but in the near future doctors began to recognize each without explanation.
A surprising fact was revealed during the interviews; every sexual violence committed by "family", lay on the shoulders of Adalana, the 19-years-old lesbian, who "captured" his consciousness in a state of a sexual tension. Love relationship, which occurred in members of the "family" with women, were perceived as the platonic ones; but they were not platonic in reality. Adalana woke up merely every night and a situation could change.
In order to address the court, Billy needed literally to “gather in parts”, at first, the most congenial characters were driven together, but any stress could fall apart everything to its original condition. After receiving some sort of "whole person", many physicians have noted that the ability of each reduced to a minimum and awareness of the situation was critical. Billy was committed to a psychiatric hospital.
The Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), also known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) is a very rare mental disease from the group of dissociative disorders, in which a human's personality is divided, and it seems that there are several different personalities (or, in other terms, ego states) in the body of one person. In this case, at certain moments a person can "switch" from one person into another. These "individuals" may have different gender, age, nationality, temperament, intelligence, philosophy, and can respond differently to the same situation.
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Dissociative Identity Disorder Treatment: An Empirically Based Approach." Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes 77.2 (2014): 169-189.
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Identity Disorder And Co-Occurring Borderline Personality Disorder Treated With Dynamic Deconstructive Psychotherapy." American Journal Of Psychotherapy 66.2 (2012): 165-180.
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