Three Effects Of Models Essay Example
Three Effects of Models
Social cognitive theory is considered as the theory of learning that defines learning as an internal mental process that occurs from observing and modelling others. This theory merges both cognitive and behavioral learning theories (Feldman, 2002). According to Bandura (2001), most learning occurs in the social setting. He said learning can occur by either observing behavior or its consequences.
The process of learning happens in four main steps. Firstly the learner must be attentive to the behavior he needs to learn so that from it he can perceive the qualities he wishes to achieve. Prior knowledge of what is to be observed enhances perception. The second step in the process is the ability to retain in memory the observed behavior through proper encoding of the perceived information. After that the learner needs to reproduce the observed behavior that had been stored in memory when recalled. This can be achieved through physical reproduction of the behavior. Lastly he needs to be motivated to continue reproducing the behavior through his expectations of reward or punishment and self-reinforcement. It’s then that learning would have taken place. (Feldman, 2002)
Albert Bandura proposed three models of social cognitive learning namely modelling effect, inhibitory and disinhibitory effect and eliciting effect. In the modeling effect admirable qualities in the model enhance observational learning. The learner observes another person called the model so as to learn from him or her. The model needs to possess qualities such as a high social status or being very good at something or even socially powerful. This qualities in the model stimulate learning. A model who receive rewards for their behavior will influence more people to ape his behavior when compared to those who are punished for their behavior. A poorly performing student may model the study habits a well performing student by acquiring their study habits (Bandura, 2001).
In the inhibitory and disinhibitory effect the observer is affected in two different ways. For inhibitory effect the observer sees another being punished for an action done in a social situation. Inhibitory effect is also referred to as the positive punishment. The observer learns to avoid that action expecting a similar outcome were he to behave in a similar manner. If a teacher punishes a noise maker in class other student will be less likely to make noise. Disinhibitory effect on the other hand is positive reinforcement. The learner observes a person being rewarded for a behavior in a social situation. The learner will learn and imitate the rewarded behavior. If a teacher commends a student for answering a question other will be encouraged to do the same. In this model the learner expects similar outcomes for his own behavior (Dodge & Fernald, 2007).
The eliciting effect is also called the response facilitation effect. In this a previous learned behavior occurs more frequently when the observer observes a model being rewarded for a similar behavior. The uniqueness of eliciting effect is that only previously learned behavior is increased as opposed to the other models discussed in the preceding paragraphs in which a new response results after observation. If a student is good in mathematics and observes another being rewarded for excellence in mathematics that student will also excel in mathematics (Dodge & Fernald, 2007)
Imitation involves copying a single behavior from a role model one identifies with. He found out that it is easy to imitate individuals who have similar characteristics to the learner as opposed to those who don’t have the desired qualities. Bandura concluded that an observed behavior has a higher chance of being imitated when reinforcement for that behavior is provided. A cowardly soldier will imitate his more courageous captain in the battle field (Bandura, 2001).
In operant conditioning is a learning approach in which behavior and consequence become associated. It’s believed that behavior that results in a desirable outcome is more likely to be repeated. As opposed to Skinner Bandura believes humans process information actively and that even expectations of reinforcement alone without the reinforcement can influence behavior (Feldman, 2002).
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1
Robert & Feldman, (2002). Understanding psychology. (6th ED). San Francisco. Mc-Graw Hill. Print.
Dogde,L., & Fernald, P., (2007). Munns Introduction to Psychology. (5th ED). AITBS publishers. New Delhi. Print.