Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Research Papers Example
One of the most common disorders to the children is the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD. It is describe as behavior impulsiveness, inattentiveness, irregular over activeness and easy disturbance. This disorder might continue from childhood stage to stage of adolescence and then up to adulthood. This disorder according to the neurobiological is not an illness or a disease but a syndrome which is heterogeneous. It cause is known and particular and the treatment needs various approaches which include parental disciplines, educational, medical and neuropsychological (Millichap, 2010).
In 1994, the Diagnostics and Statistical Manual (DSM) identified the three subtypes. First subtype is lack of hyperactivity which is the ADHD-inattentive. This type consist of nine symptoms occurs for a period of six months. It is also exist during the activities in school or while playing. The nine symptoms are avoiding of tasks, could not pay or maintain attention on things, do not listen when conversing, could be distracted easily, failure in completing the tasks, forgetful, loses things, makes thoughtless errors or mistakes, and appeared to be disorganized. To be able to determine that a child belongs to this type, six of these symptoms are present during the six month period (Millichap, 2010).
Second is the ADHD-hyperactive-impulsive type. The symptoms on this subtype are on the go always, blurts out answers to questions, cannot play quietly, cannot wait in line or take turn, fidgety, leaves seat in classroom or at dinner table, often interrupted, runs or climbs excessively. Like the first subtype, the symptoms of this subtype also occur for the period of six months (Millichap, 2010).
The last type is the ADHD-combine. As the term itself describe, it is a combination of the symptoms of inattentive and hyper-impulsive and present for the period of six months. This subtype exists to most of the children (Millichap, 2010).
Causes of ADHD
ADHD can be experienced for the reason that there are environmental and acquired causes. Another cause to be considered is that ADHD is the inherited genes (Millichap, 2010). On environmental causes, researches have related this disorder with the use of alcohol and smoking of cigarettes when pregnant and children. Lead is considered as one of the causes. Automobile fumes are the most common in urban and rural areas where children could breathe and had the harmful effects to the body. Those children who are exposed so much to lead could develop problems or damages to neurological and psychological aspects (Wender, 2002). Others causes that might be of high risk are sometimes found in old building paints and fixtures from plumbing.
Another possible cause of having ADHD is the food additives like sugar, aspartame and tartrazine. There are studies created which the aspartame was added to the food intake. The studies shown that the behavior of the children becomes worst when there is the presence of aspartame. With regard to tartrazine, like the aspartame it also the worsened the behavior of the children such as irritability, sleep problems and restlessness. Many studies and researches are still conducted if sugar will be one of the causes of the ADHD (Wender, 2002).
ADHD is believed to the heterogeneous. There are studies on twins which demonstrate results that this disorder, time and again, goes with families. Research findings on various genes would generate the development of this disorder to the people. The knowledge of the genes might be of help in finding the treatment or solution to this disorder. Children carrying a certain gene which have a thinner tissue in the brain located in the attention related part have ADHD. Nevertheless, this brain tissue will develop its thickness into the normal level when the children grew up into the adolescent stage and then into adulthood (Wender, 2002; Shouthall, 2007).
Treatments of ADHD
ADHD treatments comprise of different psychotherapy, medication, combination of treatments, or training or education. ADHD has no cure but the medication could get rid of the ADHD symptoms. Treatments as well as interventions are developed by the researchers in order to find effective ways for its prevention and cure. With the developed treatments interventions, children as well as adults having ADHD could live productive life and be successful in professions and school (Wender, 2002).
Stimulant is the most conjoint form of medication which is used for ADHD treatment. Stimulant has the soothing result to the children having this disorder. Medications improve the capability to learn, to work, to focus and to improve the coordination of the body. This also reduces the children from being impulsive and hyperactive (Wender, 2002).
On the other hand, medications or treatments do not work when applied to other children. This may differ from children to another, thus, one treatment might not applicable for all. This also might entail side effects on one child while on the other child this might work. The physicians or experts need to monitor closely the medications given to the children with ADHD (Millichap, 2010).
Medications using stimulant emanate in diverse methods like a skin or a liquid patch, a capsule or a pill. These medications had extended range effect, short range effect, and long range effect. The same active ingredient consist each range, however, the discharge to the body is different. Some discharge will last for a day, so the child will only take one medication before going to school. The physicians and the parents will have a great role in deciding when to take the medications and what medications will be given to the children (Wender, 2002).
Impact to the Brain and Social Consciousness
According to National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), physicians found out that the brain area called the frontal cortex, that is in control of the inhibition, planning, memory, reason as well as attention, matures gentler and looks thinner in ADHD children. The NIMH used the functional magnetic Resonance imaging (fMRI) during this scanning test. There is also a NIMH study in some cases that the frontal cortex was very thick and covered of which it appears to be behind for about three years. In this study, it was shown that children manifested the ADHD symptom like the impulsive behavior (Healthline, n.d.).
Another study likewise demonstrates with regard to the brain’s part which is responsible for the controls of locomotors called the motor cortex, developed more rapidly than typical ADHD children. This shows that children at an early age and under hyperactive need to move continually. It is also discovered that the ADHA children need minor brain volume than that of without ADHA, specifically in parts of brain which is responsible for emotion and attention. In this, the ADHD children are struggling in impulse controlling and attention paying (Healthline, n.d.).
Further, the children’s brain with this disorder has different functions. The diverse parts of brain link through transferring the signals by neurotransmitters. The neurotransmitters are norepinephrine and dopamine which support messages sent amid the parts of the brain related to motivation and attention. The brain of the ADHD children might need less of the two chemicals, thus, it entails the struggle of the ADHD children in the repetitive tasks performance and in paying attention (Healthline, n.d.).
In social interactions, some ADHD children find it to be a big problem such as difficulty in relationship, social rejections and throbbing peer connections. (CHADD) in the normal range, children or adult can effectively interact with other individuals since it is by having the attentiveness and control over the behaviour. ADHD Individuals are most often than not lack of control on impulse, forgetful as well as inattentive (National Resource Center on AD/HD, n.d.).
The social skills are normally attained by incidental learning such as imitating the behaviour of other individuals, practicing, watching the individual around and receiving the feedback. This learning can be done at the early age through activities in the childhood stage. The ADHD children usually missed these learnings and get only part of it. However, the whole social interaction is lost. Unluckily, adults also experienced this situation. This lack of the social skills often leads to the rejection of the peers and then limits the chance to acquire this kind of skills. Another challenge is having a hard time to keep and make friends to others as well as the deficits in using appropriate behaviour (National Resource Center on AD/HD, n.d.).
Proper medication should be taken in order to generate changes directly executive task or function of the individual’s brain and then will help the ADHD children to use the recently learned social skills. In accomplishing this objective, there must be parents and teachers beside in order to train the individual in prompting and reinforcing the skills not only at home and at school but also in the community.
Though educating the individuals having the ADHD, family, and friends around with regard to the ADHD and the means that affects the brain and the social relationships and assist in the relief of the liability and struggle. Using the proper evaluation, education and treatment, individuals having this disorder could learn the strategies at the early age on how to manage the self and how to effectively interact with other individuals resulting to better relationship and better life.
CHADD. (n.d.). Social Skills for Children with ADHD. Retrieved from http://www.chadd.org/Understanding-ADHD/Parents-Caregivers-of-Children-with-ADHD/Behavior-and-Social-Skills/Social-Skills-for-Children-with-ADHD.aspx
Cooper, J. & Jensen. P. (2002). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Eds. United States of America: Civic Research Institute, Inc.
Kinman, T. (2012). “ADHD and the Brain: Structure and Function.” Healthline Website. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/the-brains-structure-and-function#1
Millichap, J. G. (2010). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Handbook: A Physician’s Guide to ADHD. United States of America: Springer-Science+Business Media, LLC.
National Resource Center on ADIHD. (n.d.). Living with AD/HD: A Lifespan Disorder. Social Skills in Adults with ADHD (WWK15). Retrieved from http://www.help4adhd.org/en/living/relandsoc/wwk15
Southall, A. (2007). The Other Side of ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Exposed and Explained. United Kingdom: Radcliffe Publishing.
Wender, P. (2000). ADHD: Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. United States of America: Oxford University Press.