Beliefs And Arguments Of Feminist Movements Essays Examples

Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Feminism, Gender Equality, Women's Rights, Women, Democracy, Men, Sociology, Radical

Pages: 4

Words: 1100

Published: 2020/12/02


The general idea of ​​feminism is the implementation of the principle of harmony, recognition of the importance of equal opportunity and equality in the development of civilization. According to one of the theorists of contemporary feminism E. Moltmann-Wendel, it is fighting against sexism, economic domination of men dominating men's rights throughout the history of the society. The actual fight against sexism, i.e. discrimination on grounds of sex, enshrined in the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, signed by many of its members i.e. governments. These ideas are guided by UNESCO in its activities. So, having emerged in the 40s of XIX century, feminism has gradually become independent of socio-political theory. And if the first stage, it was acted as a social protest, and his supporters advocated ethical and humanistic principles of life of citizens of a civilized society, then in the future the ideology was developed based on the experience gained actions, speeches women in different countries. Gradually begins active struggle for rights and against discrimination in public and private life. There is a transition to a new quality, namely, the development of independent theoretical models - classical and post-classical feminism, the transition from the initial requirements of equal rights with men to develop a concept, the search for the foundations of social oppression and how to eliminate it.
Classic feminism, its emergence as an independent, informed, having elements of the organization of women's movement in most civilized countries began in the mid-XIX century. It is characterized first of all by social protest in an organized movement. It is characterized not so much by the scientific development of his philosophical doctrine that is significant for its later stages, as "running time by purchasing experience Activism and performances for the civil and political rights.

Liberal Feminism

Liberal feminism proclaims the equality of men and women through political and legal reforms. This is an individualistic trend in feminism which focuses on the ability of women to achieve equal rights with men through their own actions and decisions. Liberal feminism uses the personal interaction between men and women, as a starting point from which there is a transformation of society. According to liberal feminists, all women are able to assert their own right to be equal with men. In many respects, this position is based on the classical concept of the Enlightenment on the construction of a society based on reason and equality of opportunity. Applying these principles to the women laid the foundation of liberal feminism that developed in the XIX century theorists such as John Stuart Mill, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and others. It is therefore particularly important to them was the question of the right of ownership for a woman as one of the basic rights that guarantee the independence of women by men. On this basis, the status of women can be carried out without a radical change in social structures, as it involves other areas of feminism. For liberal feminists important issues such as abortion rights, the issue of sexual harassment, equal opportunity to vote, equality in education, "equal pay for equal work", the availability of childcare availability health care, highlighting the issue of sexual and domestic violence against women.
Liberal feminism can be divided into two waves. The first wave came in the middle of the XIX century and lasted until the early XX century. The main demand of the women's movement of this wave was the opportunity for higher education. Just mainly important is the labor question. During the second wave, liberal feminism is gaining popularity. Adherents of this movement become larger than in any other feminist direction. Development, this trend has become, thanks to the influence of views suffragettes fighting for equal voting rights.
Criticism of liberal feminism is expressed in the fact that, according to the critics, the performance requirements of representatives of this movement would not contribute to the advancement of women in the world. Inequality is reflected in virtually every sphere of social life and is expressed in racial discrimination, and in the class differentiation. Liberal feminists in the struggle for equal rights and opportunities, according to the opponents do not consider these factors. Therefore, to achieve equality among all women is impossible. Interestingly, formed under the influence of liberal feminism, feminist movement neoliberal sees the problem in the fact that men and women have equal rights, but they cannot use them (and the resources).

Radical Feminism

Radical feminism is the direction of feminism, analyzing and exposing the universality of male power and primacy of the oppressed status of women, regardless of race, nationality, age, and so on. D. This is the most striking trend of feminism, and disassociated himself from the leftist movement, and the cultural and liberal feminism (with which is the direction it was originally connected). It does not have a unified theoretical basis, presenting a varied and contradictory conglomeration of feminist theories. The key concept is the patriarchy; use it to analyze all areas of human activity: economic, political, personal, intimate, and others. Radical feminists argue that the mechanism of reproduction of gender differences permeates all spheres of life and affects behavior and social interaction, as the primary mechanism of suppression. Within the framework of radical feminism analyzed social institutions and practices through which male control and domination. Special attention within this direction given to the social practices associated with sexuality, as indicated, that the control of women's sexuality is the most important way to control and manipulate the mechanism. The focus of research radical feminists such social institutions and practices as marriage, motherhood, abortion, contraception practices, violence against women, heterosexuality as the only possible manifestation of sexuality, and so on.
Some radical feminists believe that in society there is a based on masculinity, the structure of power and subordination, and this structure is the cause of oppression and inequality, and until the whole system and its values ​​continue to exist, no significant reforms of society is impossible and they see no other alternative, completely breaking apart and reconstruction of society to achieve their goals. Mary Daly is of the opinion that the world would be much better if there was much less than men.

Works Cited

Bell, Diane and Renate Klein. Radically Speaking. Spinifex Press ISBN 1-875559-38-8.
Daly, Mary. (1978) Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism. Beacon Pr. ISBN 0-8070-1413-3
Koedt, Anne, Ellen Levine, and Anita Rapone, eds. (1973). Radical Feminism. Times Books. ISBN 0-8129-6220-6
Tong, Rosemarie. 1989. Feminist Thought: A Comprehensive Introduction. Oxon, United Kingdom: Unwin Human Ltd. Chapter 1
Baker, Jean H. Sisters: The Lives of America's Suffragists. Hill and Wang, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-8090-9528-9.
Bryson, V. (1999): Feminist Debates: Issues of Theory and Political Practice (Basingstoke: Macmillan) pp.14-15

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