Type of paper: Essay

Topic: Project, Experiment, Structure, Skills, Human, Ageing, Pets, Information

Pages: 7

Words: 1925

Published: 2023/05/15

1. What techniques/training will the scholarship provide?
The scholarship will train people on the aspects that relate to the testing and culturing of samples used in research. Testing hypothesis will be made possible through the project. The hypothesis testing skills are needed to test the hypothesis in the study. The study will base on the ability to take records and measure outcome. The project will offer training on how to test hypothesis and measure outcome. On the other hand, the scholarship will train clients on how to collect samples, record and interpret scientific data. When the project is done, the lab technicians shall have been trained on the lab protocols and skills of extracting samples from a specimen.
2. Summary of the skills you would bring to the project
I would use my analysis and communication skills to use the laboratory analysis systems as required. My skills in collecting blood samples and extracting DNA will be applicable in the project since the project requires more on data collection and analysis of results (Symposium on Telomeres and Telomerase, 2011). In this research, a more important skill that I will apply is data analysis. I will use it to analyze the results that I get from the experiment. Besides, animal husbandry skills are needed when selecting the animals to use as the model system used in for the laboratory phase. During the animal phase, I used the animal husbandry skills to collect samples. Working as a team leads to the completion of the project. The project will require teamwork in the collection of the samples and laboratory analysis. Work will be delegated to each member so that they produce quality and timely work on the project at an individual level. I will be able to put my leadership skills in practice and get the team going with the good work.
Moreover, the project will involve data analysis and record keeping. The two skills go hand in hand to execute a more reliable output result. Throughout the project, I the record keeping skills will be handy to make keep the results of what is observed from the project. The life skill that will make the project a reality is control. Controlling the experiment is very important in making sure that the experiment proceeds as required.
3. Please explain how your project relates to the improvement of human or animal health?
The project leads to improvement in animal and human health because it finds solutions and the cause to problems such as ageing. Improvement of human and animal health can be achieved through constant research on how to avoid shrinking of the telomeres. In which the case, the project aims to understand how telomere biology can help humanity in getting new knowledge that can be used in curbing other problems that were not the initial aim of the experiment (Rudolph, 2008). The project will possibly find the aspects that lead to the change. Scientists are able to get better reasons and solutions to the problems that affect the DNA structure. During the replication of the DNA, there occurs regular senescence. The telomere struggles to maintain the TTAGGG sequence in the DNA structure. When the telomeres maintain the sequence, they preserve chromosomal integrity.
When DNA replicates and changes occur to the structure, the project will give the causes of the structural change. When the causes have been identified, possible solutions will be made as to how the body system can cope with the changes. In addition, the project will help in getting the solutions to ageing problems that face the human beings. When research is done, solutions can be found on the causes of telomere shortening. The project gets the solutions to the problems that cause ageing in dogs. Experiments fill the gaps in knowledge and make the new resolutions to the problems that affect human beings.
4. Summaries this project in layman’s language
Telomeres are protein-like structures that form the endings of the chromosomes. They help in protecting the cell’s integrity. The experiment is a laboratory analysis of finding out the link between lifespan and telomere length. The samples used in the experiment are taken from dogs such as blood and DNA. Deviations in the samples collected are made by the difference in the breeds that are used in the experiment. One of the skills employed in the experiment is the use of a microscope in viewing the result. In the experiment, smaller aspects of the DNA structure are analyzed for aspects that relate to ageing.
The experiment will use dog breeds instead of mice and human. On the use of humans, it is unethical to remove cells from human beings to carry out experiments due to the fear of the unknown. Dogs are used in the experiment because they have the same DNA and telomere structure as human beings. The experiment uses six dog breeds in carrying out the experiment of telomere length. It aims at finding solutions to human and animal health by analyzing how telomeres are linked to ageing.
5. What do you think are the strengths and weaknesses of this project?
The first strength of the project is that it will use lab techniques that allow succintive viewing of the telomeres. Telomeres are very tiny and can only be viewed by the help of two hybrid instrumentations, found in the laboratory. Among these instrumentations, the Southern Blot Hybridization is a current technique that uses a smear to get the telomere pattern for the parts that the DNA structure have. Densitometry on the other hand helps the project in getting the best result because it gives a clear indication of the length of the telomere.
A second strength of the experiment is the choice of the model system. The results can be validated because the sample that was used was of a sample that has the same telomere structure as the dogs. The common models used in research were available but they did not have the same telomere structure as the dog. The cells in dogs undergo the mitotic shock as the cells in human beings. The correlation makes the projects to have a valid source of evidence.
On the other hand, the artificial selection of the dogs will make the experiment successful due to the different breeds that were available for the project. The difference enable comparison between the samples that were used for research and hence the validity of the results. When variety is available, the experiment is done under control and a method that enables comparison of results that are got from the experiment.The first weakness that comes in the project is that it lacks a control experiment.
The project does not have a control experiment that will be used as a reference to compare results. Lack of a control experiment will make the results questionable. A control experiment offers a basis through which comparison of the aspects is done in the experiment. It also gives a way forward for the experiment done. It provides a basis of giving the conclusions from the project.
Secondly, there are no set standards for the project. Standards help to gauge the precision and the validity of the results. It gives a hint of the way the results should go. The lack of basic standards makes the results questionable and lack internal validity. An experiment that lacks internal validity is questionable.
6. Discuss the importance of the telomere for chromosomal structure and describe how telomeric DNA is lost during DNA replication.
Telomeres are protein-like structures that form at the endings of the chromosomes. They are found at the end of the chromosomes and serve several purposes. In the DNA, they allow for the distinction between the structures of the chromosomes incase the DNA is broken (Balajee, 2006). On the other hand, telomeres prevent the chromosomes from joining. The process is called Non-homologous end joining. It aids in stopping chromosomal degradation. Being that they are found on the ends, they protect chromosomal ends and guarantee the stability of the chromosome.
Counting the number of telomeres may provide a solution to getting the number of cell divisions that occur in a system (Icheku, 2006). Telomeres are therefore very important in a cell DNA structure. Besides, the telomere aid in protecting the cell’s integrity. They retain relevant information pertaining to the cell and its DNA structure.
During DNA replication, several aspects occur to the telomere. The first aspect is that the end of the telomere is not changed. Due to this scenario, the ends become short and lose the TTAGGG sequence in the DNA structure. The structure will lose the base pairs depending on the environment and the genetic information that the cell contains. When replication is over, the chromosome become unstable and loses viability. The cells that have telomeres undergo division of about 50 to 60 times. An enzyme, reverse transcriptase that has subunits of RNA helps in the process. The enzyme aids in the addition of the telomere (Newman & Cauley, 2012). During the replication of the DNA, there occurs regular senescence.
7. Provide 2 ORIGINAL REFERENCES of relevance to the project and 1 REVIEW PAPER. State the relevance of the 2 original papers to the proposed research project
A research done by Newman & Cauley (2012) found out that the there is a relationship between the telomere and ageing. Their research is relevant for the study because it also found out the same scenario. The work was therefore relevant in the project and many aspects were drawn from the research. Icheku did a second reference paper. Their research was about the introduction of telomerase into normal cells. Their study involves gauging the results of the on lifespan after the enzyme was introduced in the normal cells. A review paper done by Chardwick et al was used in the project. The review paper talks about ageing research that provided more information on the project. Some aspects from the paper, ‘Ageing Research’, helped in the project for example senescence.
The original papers help in providing direction in the research. They provide the gaps in knowledge that the project sought to discuss about. Besides, they work to provide the standards that the project is supposed to take. The original papers act as control experiments. A control experiment offers a basis through which comparison of the aspects is achieved in an experiment. It also gives a way forward for the experiment. The original papers guide the people who carried out the project because they contain the same information that may be needed when dealing with the project.
The research done by Newman &Cauly provides a basis of giving the conclusions from the project. An experiment is made easier when there is a guideline or a source of comparing the results and gauging precision. The two papers provide an avenue for comparing the results to fill the gaps in knowledge.
8. If the aims of this project were successfully achieved, what would you suggest would be a follow on investigation to progress knowledge in this area?
The follow up on the research would be other aspects that cause ageing in dogs. A follow up for the project can be on the causes on telomere shortening. Constant research on this is important because the factors that cause change in the telomere undergo mutation and hence the change. The mutations are linked to cancer and tumors. New research will work on the aspects that cause the mutation and development of tumors and possibly find solutions to the problems. Future developments from the project would look into the aspects that happen during DNA replication and the aspects that happen to the telomere. The developments that can be made from the subsequent research will look at solutions to telomere shortening and aging. In order to make the follow up easy, the subsequent research conducted should be looked at in terms of adaptability, sustainability and ease of use. A new method should take in the three aspects so that they make an improvement to human and animal health.
After finding out the causes, the process should look out for the circumstances that cause the shortening of the telomere. A follow up investigation should aim at finding gaps in knowledge of this project and the way forward.

References

Rudolph, K. L. (2008). Telomeres and telomerase in aging, disease, and cancer: Molecular mechanisms of adult stem cell ageing.Berlin: Springer.
Symposium on Telomeres and Telomerase, Chadwick, D., Cardew, G., & Ciba Foundation.(2011). Telomeres and telomerase.Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons.
Balajee, A. S. (2006). DNA repair and human disease.Georgetown, Tex: Landes Bioscience/Eurekah.com.
Icheku, V. (2006).Degenerative diseases of ageing: Causes and preventions.London: William Jacob.
Newman, A. B., &Cauley, J. A. (2012).The epidemiology of aging.Dordrecht: Springer.

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