Criminology Research Paper Examples

Type of paper: Research Paper

Topic: Crime, Print, Police, Criminal Justice, Law, Community, Plea, Education

Pages: 2

Words: 550

Published: 2020/12/11

In the classical study, The American Jury, Kalven, and Zeisel indicated that to about 75% to 80% the judges concur with the juries in criminal cases. They observed that a few disagreements happened when the evidence was clear. Kalven and Zeisel agreed that judges were more lenient and soft on such cases and termed them as normal disagreements. To further explain the normal disagreements and others, they quantified the effect of factor well known as population attributed risk.
Data was collected from 1977 to 2005 in North Carolina to test whether extralegal factors on the defendant of the victim predict chances of death sentences in cases where aggravation happens during the controlling of the other cases. The liberation hypothesis then argues that juries in most cases depend on the extralegal factors when passing judgments when they are questioning the strength of the case. Kalven and Zeisel, therefore, suggest that the greater the severity of a crime, the fewer likely judges will feel in following their sentiments" and values or values regarding sentencing decision
This is what Simon (1967) found that the jury deliberation process in insanity cases. The research on jury deliberation process is very low. The research has so much focused jurors as people who make decisions instead of dealing with interactions between groups. A lot of research claiming to focus on the jury in its entirety actually focuses on jurors at the individual level, as well as, those variables that affect the individuals.
The study about police showed that value conflicts in a democratic society despite the ability of the police to respond to the rule of law. A research was conducted by criminal law officials examining their personality at work. Through questionnaires and observation police behavior was examined while at work on traffic etc. in conclusion the tension between goals of putting everything in order, efficiency the protection of rights involves the principle of the problem of police as a democratic institution.
Wilson's three styles of policing include. Watchmen: maintenance of order and crime control. They can help the youngsters to solve their cases domestically. Legalistic: believes citizens must be treated with equality so the police should not be biased. Service this refers to the service to the community by being each other's keeper.
Piliavin and Briar (1984) found that when police made arrest decisions, more severe outcomes were largely dictated by police bias and the Negroes being despised whereas the whites were exalted in their crime.
Scanning Analysis Response and Assessment (SARA), has gained a lot of celebrity so far. One of the processes it has failed to incorporate the community into it. It believes that the police can only curd danger alone.
Alschuler expanded the findings of Blumberg and examined numerous types of defense attorneys i.e. public defenders, retained attorneys, pro bono, among many appointed defense counsel, and unrepresented defendants. The fundamental objective of the study was to assess the defendants role in plea bargaining and whether defendants were ethically represented. Significance of Alschuler's research on plea bargaining is it is of advantage to both the prosecutors and the defendants. For instance, a prosecutor can ask for a plea bargain to save the court tits valuable time for other important cases. The defendants also benefit because the criminal admits his wrongs. The defendant in plea bargaining should always confess first before the agreement is made. Plea bargaining also saves the taxpayers a lot of money as well as providing first evidence. Being granted a plea bargain is a compromise.
Simon's deliberation has been advantageous in the sense that it contacts crimes. It helps in understanding the examinations carried out by the parties on the matters proposed. The deliberation and the end process relate to accomplishing a common goal. It assumes the person from each part does what he is supposed to do and can prove that an a crime was an accident, and they did not do it willingly. In keeping with Simon’s deliberation, public opinion reveals resistance to the psychosis defense with an aim of demonstrating that many criminals evade punishment by pleading and through feigning insanity. Arguably, the general view remains that insanity defense has often been used as a means of escaping just by the defendants. As such, the public tend to feel that there is perceived misuse of psychiatry and a grown distrust of the psychiatrist who are viewed as a people who provide excuse for crime by any defendant who has the ability and means of employing a psychiatric witness.
Wilson and Kelling argue that officer in patrol should concentrate on problems like teenagers loitering; aggressive pan handling that worsens the quality of neighborhood. According to them, such concerns are the root course of social disorder. Community policing has gradually evolved from the time of civil rights movement that exposed the flaws of the conventionally policing model in 1960s. Even as the foundation of community policing can be traced to the weak police-community relations, there have been numerous factors that have influenced the course of community policing. Departmental or individual Wilson's policing styles, they play a rather important role in understanding police attitudes and behavior. Hiring and promotional decisions made by police departments are based on police personality closely aligned with the goals and mission of its department.

Work Cited

Rosenfeld, Barry. Research methods in forensic psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2011. Print.
Lundmark, Thomas. Charting the divide between common and civil law. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press, 2012. Print.
Laming, D. R. J. Understanding human motivation what makes people tick. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Pub, 2004. Print.
Engel, David M., and Michael W. McCann. Fault lines tort law as cultural practice. Stanford, Calif: Stanford Law Books, 2009. Print.
Kassin, Saul M., Steven Fein, and Hazel R. Markus. Social psychology. Belmont, CA: Cengage Wadsworth, 2011. Print.
Horvath, Miranda, and Jennifer Brown. Rape challenging contemporary thinking. Cullompton, Devon Portland, Or: Willan Pub, 2009. Print.
Easteal, Patricia W. Balancing the scales : rape, law reform, and Australian culture. Leichhardt, NSW: Federation Press, 1998. Print.
Sarat, Austin. The Blackwell companion to law and society. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2004. Print.
Hall, Harold V., and Robert J. Sbordone. Disorders of executive functions : civil and criminal law applications. Winter Park, FL: PMD Publishers Group, 1993. Print.
Rogers, Richard, and Daniel W. Shuman. Conducting insanity evaluations. New York: Guilford Press, 2000. Print.
White, James B. The legal imagination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. Print.
Devine, Dennis J. Jury decision making the state of the science. New York: New York University Press, 2012. Print.
Hageman, Mary J. Police-community relations. Beverly Hills, Calif: Sage Publications, 1985. Print.

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