Division Of Sudan Research Papers Example
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Africa is popular for its frequent civil wars, which result in loss of several lives, as well as the destruction of property. The civil wars have also been great barriers to the economic growth and development of a number of countries in the African continent. Among the countries that have suffered a great deal from the impacts of civil war is Sudan. It was among the first African countries to gain independence in 1956, after Egypt, which although gained independence in 1922, is considered an Arab state. After gaining independence, the situation in Sudan worsened. There were continuous conflicts between Muslims and Christians, as well as between the Arabs and Africans. Most Arabs and Muslims were from the northern part of Sudan whereas the Africans and Christians were from the Southern part of the larger Sudan. Apart from the ethno-religious lines, economic lines also contributed in one way or another to the conflicts. Oil was in plenty at the border between the north and south, and people from the south and north wanted to have control over the oil fields, causing the eruption of civil wars in the country. Continuous conflicts between the north and south prompted the division of Sudan into the present Sudan, and the present Southern Sudan. The secession by the South came in 2011 when the people from the south voted unanimously in a referendum that forced then to secede from the north due to frequent conflicts because of religion and control of oil fields.
Long-lasting effects of the conflict
Essentially, every war or conflict must have its effects, whether short-term or long lasting. Similarly, the civil war between the Northern Sudan and the Southern Sudan had a number of effects, both on the people and their way of life, and the environment. One of the lasting effects of the conflicts is the poor economic conditions in existence in both countries today. How did the civil war lead to poor economic conditions? Normally, it is argued that the division of two countries leads to good economic growth though the situation in Northern and Southern Sudan has been different. During the conflicts, several people were killed, slightly above one million people from both the south and the north. The employment sector lost a number of employees, and it is without doubt that the economy had to be disrupted. Some companies, as well as profit-making organizations, could not thrive in the civil war hence were forced t close down. The closure of companies and organizations, as well as the death of employees and employers impacted negatively on the economic growth of the present Sudan and southern Sudan. Although normalcy is returning, it might take the two countries a couple of years to get back to steady economic growth.
As mentioned earlier, one of the factors that led to the civil wars and conflicts between the north and south was religious differences. The Muslims from the north wanted to make Sudan and an Islamic state while the Christians from the south resisted the efforts. As a result, till presently, the religious differences in Sudan are evident. The Republic of Sudan (north) is an Islamic and Arab state while Southern Sudan is a Christian and African state. Religious differences have had serious negative effects such as sparkling wars that cause loss of several lives. Currently, the situation in both countries cannot change, as efforts to introduce either Christianity or Islam in both countries might lead to fresh conflicts. In fact, the effect of religious differences in the two countries is still evident. In the recent years, Christians in the Republic of Sudan have faced serious religious persecution. For instance, several Catholic priests have migrated from Sudan due to the frequent arrests and mistreatments that they often face. In Sudan (northern part), churches have been forcefully shut down, and Christians have been expelled from their jobs or schools. Christians have been forced to conform to Muslim behavior and culture such as wearing the Chador and Hijabs. Christian women on the streets have faced persecution or have been flogged for failing to adhere to the Muslim code of behavior and culture. This continues to be a significant problem in the North, and it is evidently one of the long lasting effects of the civil war between the north and south.
The other long lasting almost irreversible effect is the depression suffered by individuals due to the loss of the lives of their close relatives and friends. Apparently, the war led to the loss of several lives, and this is one of the reasons why the President of Sudan, Omar el-Bashir faces charges of crimes against humanity in the International Criminal Court. Moreover, approximately 3.5 million people were displaced and separated from their loved ones, an effect that led to the depression among the citizens of Sudan. Although efforts are in place to solve the situation, the number of lives lost during the war will remain in the books of history.
It is argued that the President of Sudan, Omar el-Bashir had a hand in the civil conflicts that ensued between the North and the South. He has been barred or prohibited from moving from visiting member states of the United Nations. Thus, the other long-lasting effect of the civil wars in Sudan is the economic sanctions that have been imposed on the Republic of Sudan. Since it is believed that Omar el-Bashir caused and spearheaded the fights, a number of countries, especially in Europe and America have cut their ties with the country. Trade does not take place between Sudan and other foreign countries, and this has had a direct negative effect on the residents of the country.
The civil war that ensued in Sudan led to complete destruction of resources. For example, the infrastructure was destroyed during the civil wars, and a lot of funds that would have been used in other developmental sectors were channeled to facilitate the reconstruction of damaged infrastructure. Besides, the conflicts resulted in extreme land degradation and deforestation because of the displacement and resettlement of people that occurred during the conflict.
Conflict Resolution tactics that took place to end the conflict
A number of conflict resolution tactics were put in place, and they brought the conflict between the north and south to an end. One of the conflict resolution tactics that played an integral role in ending the civil war in Sudan was mediation. A number of leaders, from African states, from European states, as well as from the United Nations met, together with the leaders from Northern Sudan and Southern Sudan. The meeting among the leaders emphasized on the several lives that were being lost from the civil war, and that there was a need to bring the war to an end. The efforts of the mediation teams were fruitful because, in 2011, peace was restored between the two countries, and through a referendum, the South seceded from the North.
Owing to the fact that the struggle for the control of resources was one of the major reasons for the conflict, agreements between the north and south for equal control of resources was an effective way of resolving the conflict. Initially, the Jonglei Canal Development was a major factor in the civil wars. In fact, the north was not willing to separate from the south because the River Nile was flowing from the south, yet the North had the interest of controlling the resource. There was serious conflict and displacement of people when the North in collaboration with Egypt implemented a plan of redirecting the waters of the White Nile. However, later on, the leaders from the north and south came together and agreed on how they would manage the resources equally, and this brought the conflicts to an end.
Pressure from the United Nations on the two countries to end the war is the other conflict resolution tactic that was used. The UN criticized the leaders of Sudan for the crimes against humanity that led to the loss of several lives, approximately one million people. The United Nations, as a result, imposed economic sanctions on Sudan, and this bore fruits as the country gave in and ended the war. In fact, a peaceful referendum was held by the people from the south where 98% voted in favor of the secession of the South from the North.
Effects of conflict resolution tactics
Most of the conflict resolution tactics used in Sudan were successful, and they had positive effects. To begin with, the mediation initiated by various leaders saw the north and the south come to terms, and after that, the South seceded peacefully from the north. This was facilitated by the referendum held by the Southern people in favor of the secession. The secession of the south from the north brought an end to the frequent civil wars that were experienced in Sudan. The other effect of the conflict resolution tactics is that the relations between Sudan, Southern Sudan, and other countries became better. European countries stepped in and due to the drought at the time, food and water were supplied to the residents of Sudan by foreign countries especially those from Europe. This was a platform of better understanding and good relations between Sudan and other countries. In fact, international organizations such as the IMF stepped in to help Sudan pay foreign debts, and this was accepted by countries such as the United States of America. The other effect of the conflict resolution tactics is that the government of Sudan, together with other international organizations such as the World Bank, has embraced development programs. Although the development programs have been implemented at the expense of the long-term survival of Sudan's ecosystems, it has contributed in a significant growth in the economy.
In a nutshell, the division of the north and south in Sudan did not come easily. There were disagreements about the secession of the south because the north believed that they had to control resources such as the Nile River. Bearing in mind that the Nile River was flowing from the south, it would be difficult for the North to control the resource if the south seceded; hence it had to resist the secession. This resulted in conflicts that took new dimensions, such as religious and economic dimensions. The north mainly comprised of Muslims and Arabs, while the south mainly comprised of Christians and Africans. None of the religious groups was willing to accept defeat. Hence, the civil war worsened. In fact, Christians in the north faced serious persecution and discrimination. Christians in the North were denied access to the medical center and educational institutions. In fact, churches found in the north were closed. The civil war in Sudan had a number of impacts. For instance, several lives were lost in the process, and economic sanctions were imposed on Sudan. However, the embrace of various conflict resolution tactics such as mediation and support from other countries and the United Nations brought the conflicts to an end.
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